“What’s theoretical isn’t always practical.”
“Enhance neuromuscular profile”
WSSC 8 Area’s Of Programming
Note: All 8 area’s are not needed to be used every session. Example, 1. explosive, 1 lower body pull, 1 horizontal push, 1 horizontal pull and a core. Then you could tailor the next session around the area’s you did not hit yet, of course tailoring to the individual’s specific need’s.
1. Explosive (Lift / Jump / Throw / Sprint)
Explosive movement’s have a high neural and high muscular load. Therefore you want to be as neurally refreshed and metabolically replenished as possible, hence the reason these movement’s are performed first. You have no fatigue on your system to start with.
However if your performing explosive movement’s in a fatigued state, movement speed slows and you enforce negative motor patterns resulting in sub-optimal adaptations. So in order to maximize adaptions bar speed has to be performed quick with intent.
Your also neurally ramp yourself to perform with higher efficiency later in the session.
Examples: Jump, sprint or throws. Olympic lifting, plyometric movement’s, med ball.
2. Lower Body Push (Bi-Lateral + Unilateral)
Ground based. Full kinetic chain. Multi-joint. Multi-planer.
The primary focus of the session is the lower body push/pull. If you only had to pick two movements for the session for maximal athletic development pick: squat and deadlift.
3. Lower Body Pull (Bi-Lateral + Unilateral)-
More of a hip dominant movement that’s usually posterior dominant.
Example: Deadlift / RDL
Note: Unilateral movement’s are used nearly every session.
Why? One reason is because of bilateral deficit: where the sum of both leg’s working together is less than they work one at a time. So unilateral movement’s help alleviate that deficit.
There may be a previous injury that has caused muscular imbalances that you need to get strong.
4. Upper Body Horizontal Push
Example: Bench Press / Pushup
5. Upper Body Horizontal Pull
6. Upper Body Vertical Push
Example: Overhead Press
7. Upper Body Vertical Pull
8. Supplementary / Uni-lateral / Core
Comprising of a pillar like structure from your pelvis, vertebrae and scapula.
The most effective way to train the core is through bi-lateral, ground based movement’s: squat’s, deadlifts and though it’s not ground based: chinups.
The second way is using core movement’s. Example: Anti-rotation movement’s. Loaded carry’s.
(Anti-rotation / anti-lateral flexion / anti-extension / vary stance.)
“If your gonna split it’s gonna be upper and lower body OR lower body push/pull etc. Do not split the body into body parts train movements not muscle groups.”
It’s determined by how many times a week they can train, their training age, goals and time of season.
E.G. Lower Body Session Program
1. Explosive: RDL
(classified as explosive becomes it’s a progression to a Olympic lift)
2. Lower Body Push/Pull: Deadlift
3. Supplementary: Split Squat, Reverse Lunge, Step Up, BSS.
(Whatever you do hip dominant you do supplementary quad dominant.)
3B: Core Movement
E.G. Full Body
1. Explosive: Broad Jump
(Horizontal displacement explosive)
2: Lower Body Push/Pull: Front Squat
3: Upper Body Pull: Bench Press
4A: DBL Prone Row
4B: Supplemtary Lower Body: Bent leg hip extension: hip thrust / Straight leg hip extension: RDL
(Hip dominant to balance quad dominant from front squat.)
5A: Integrate: Glute Ham Raise / Stability Ball Leg Curl
Red = Pairing a straight leg hamstring dominant hip extension with the glute dominant glute ham raise.
Orange = Bent leg hip dominant glute movement with a eccentric loading hamstring movement.
Important Note: Hamstring and hamstring wasn’t doubled up. Glute and hamstring development were intelligently coupled in the program.
5B: Core Movement (Anti-rotation / anti-lateral flexion / anti-extension / vary stance)
Then you place in your loading parameters (bellow).
Development of Maximal Neuromuscular Strength & Power for Athletes
Christian: 2nd Sep 16′ + Matt: 5th Aug 16′
The nervous system is the powerhouse. If you want to maximize strength, power and speed within an athlete you need the physiology behind neuromuscular performance.
The heavier weight they lift – the better for the athlete.
This is not always the case. Time and coordination are important and the nervous system’s interplay is important.
What Do We Use Strength Training For?
Enhance strength, power and speed development, increase muscular size, prevent injury.
We don’t just use it to get them to improve their 1RM’s. You don’t want to get stuck chasing strength above everything else. Power, speed, agility, mobility, coordination and the skill of the sport.
We are training non-strength sport athletes. We’re not training competitive weightlifters.
What Are The 2 Goal’s For The Athlete?
1. Injury prevention
Preventing injury comes before sports performance, because if you can’t maintain physical health than you cannot express all the strength, power and speed within sport – deceasing your chance’s of winning.
2. Improve athletic performance
Integration Is Key
Remember who you’re coaching. You don’t want to ever exhaust your athlete in the gym so they can’t perform their sport and practice their skill.
We train them to get better at their sport. GPP is not number 1. On field/court skill is.
2. Physical Preparation (GPP)
The ability of the nervous system to produce force.
Measured by: Newtons (N)
The ability to express strength rapidly.
Measured by: Watts (W)
Important to Understand for Total Athlete Development:
4 Biomotor Qualities
Explosive strength / Power
Strength endurance / Endurance strength / Aerobic endurance
Speed endurance / Linear speed / Lateral speed
Flexibility / Coordination
Strength / Stamina / Speed / Suppleness / Skill
2 Most Important Athletic Attributes That All Good Athletes Have
“Athlete development is about training a neural pathway, and integrating with the skill.”
Speed & Power
Everything we do as a performance coach is to maxamise these two biomotor qualities as the priority after injury prevention.
Strength is a precurser to power.
Aim to get an athlete competent in these big 6 lifts.
Squat / Deadlift – RDL / Bench Press / Row / Overhead Press / Chin
Most people believe the best way to DL is with a straight bar.
Use any variant that works for your athlete.
E.G.1: if you have someone with long lever’s like a basketball player who can’t get into the position and don’t have the hip or ankle mobility your not going to force them into a straight bar because it’s popular to do so. You don’t get extra points for pulling with a straight bar. You adjust, use a trap bar, or elevate the DL, or a rack pull. You still get the adaptation, but now your not putting the individual in a compromising biomechanical position. As they improve their mobility, you adjust and increase the ROM. That’s how you evoke an overload.
E.G.2: Let’s say someone can’t squat comfortably or safely because they have a shoulder pathology, and then their forced into abduction/external rotation in a back squat. Instead of using a straight bar, use a safety bar, or a front squat.
Use a method that will work FOR YOUR INDIVIDUAL ATHLETE.
The core of the programming revolves around bi-lateral lifts.
Compound, multi-joint, multi-planer, ground based, kinetic chain, posterior chain development, training with intent, adherence, CNS development, functional hypertrophy, progression of a combination of disciplines.
1. Why would we want to a compound movement over an isolation?
More relatable to the sport. Challenges the nervous system more effectively. Muscle recruitment is more specific increasing transference over to the sport.
A deadlift is clearly going to have more ‘bang for buck’ than a leg extension.
2. Why Ground Based?
You’re not locked into a machine when you play sport so if you were looking for the most effective movements to increase athletic performance and decrease injury pick ground based movements. It’s what most athlete’s perform on.
3. Open & Closed Kinetic Chain
OKC: Not fixed.
2 Factors To Speed
Stride Length: Can be improved by relative strength. If you are stronger, per relative to your body weight, your going to apply more force to the ground – jump higher and run faster.
4. Posterior Chain Development
Train muscles you can’t see in the mirror. Most sit too long and train predominately anterior chain.
Sitting down for long periods of time and doing to much antiror chain work will most likely result in:
Pulling your pelvis forward creating a force couple and anterior pelvic tilt. Your hip flexors is linked (anterior-posterior) to your rectus femoris, and your abdominals to your glutes. You become stuck in extension, hyperlordotic and then your abs and glutes are turned off and become weak and tight.
Lengthen hip flexors and strengthen posterior chain.
5 Hip Flexors
Psoous / Illacus / Sartorious / Rectus Femoris / TFL
+Hip Extensors (In Order Of Firing)
Glutes -> Hamstring -> Erector Spinae
You can write the best program in the world, but if an athlete does not adhere consistently to it. It’s useless.
Have respect for your time. If someone’s not willing to buy-in to your method’s or not willing to commit to consistent adherence than don’t be afraid to drop them and find people who want to be around you. The dead money isn’t worth it. Respect the game.
6. CNS Development
Critical for strength power and speed adaptations.
7. Functional Hypertrophy
Define: Increasing volume of the muscle.
Myofibrillar: (Functional): Increase in size, while increasing force generating capacity.
Sarcoplasmic: (Non-Functional): Increase in size, while not increasing force generating capacity.
Especially for a weight class athlete, every bit of muscle need’s to be functional.
Often in “strength books” you will see the idea of selective hypertrophy of either the sarcoplasm or the myofibrils. This a concept/idea that is extremely misleading and blown out of proportion. In the scientific literature there is no tangible evidence for sarcoplasmic hypertrophy. It is all based on the observational studies of bodybuilders and powerlifters. Studies showed that bodybuilders had a larger muscle mass, but less strength. However, this isn’t explained by hypertrophy of the sarcoplasm, but instead explained by neural differences. Strength athletes are stronger because they train heavier… hypertrophy is hypertrophy, which is why it is often suggested to be the “base” of strength, but not the defining aspect of strength. I am not going to dive into the different mechanisms of hypertrophy, but at the end of the day hypertrophy is hypertrophy. There is not a specific sarcoplasmic or myofibril method of training. Despite what some books say, if you read the literature you will find that this concept doesn’t hold much ground. [Source]
Hypertrophy (Sarcoplasmic vs Myofibril) Often in "strength books" you will see the idea of selective hypertrophy of either the sarcoplasm or the myofibrils. This a concept/idea that is extremely misleading and blown out of proportion. In the scientific literature there is no tangible evidence for sarcoplasmic hypertrophy. It is all based on the observational studies of bodybuilders and powerlifters. Studies showed that bodybuilders had a larger muscle mass, but less strength. However, this isn't explained by hypertrophy of the sarcoplasm, but instead explained by neural differences. Strength athletes are stronger because they train heavier… hypertrophy is hypertrophy, which is why it is often suggested to be the "base" of strength, but not the defining aspect of strength. I am not going to dive into the different mechanisms of hypertrophy, but at the end of the day hypertrophy is hypertrophy. There is not a specific sarcoplasmic or myofibril method of training. Despite what some books say, if you read the literature you will find that this concept doesn't hold much ground. #powerlift #strengthathlete #strengthandconditioning #strength #strengthcoach #bodybuilding #strong #stronger #science #weights #weighttraining #powerlifting #weightlifting #olympiclifting #hypertrophy #bodybuilding #strengthcoach #lift #liftheavy #crossfit #strongman #kettlebells #exercisescience #humanperformance
Strength Is About Progression. Not The Pump.
‘The pump’ is what’s called transient hypertrophy.
All this mean’s is a temporary shift in blood plasma fluid from the blood into the muscle.
“You can be strong but not powerful – but in order if you to be powerful you must be strong first” – Joe Defranco
Strength is the foundation of strength, power, agility, speed, work capacity etc.
The Goal Of Performance Training:
1. Enhance The Neuromuscular Profile-
The interplay between the nervous and muscular systems.
2. Increase Explosive Force Generating Capacity
All about improving power and speed.
2 Factors That Influence Force Output / Strength
1. The volume / cross sectional area of the muscle.
A bigger muscle has the potential to be a stronger muscle.
“You can’t flex bone, you flex muscular tissue.” – Joe Defranco
The tissue is the contractile element. A sarcomere is the simplest most functional force generating unit of the muscular system.
The ability of the NS to activate tissue.
Two biochemical pathways your body utilizes to breakdown tissue and create muscle.
mTOR Pathway: Anobolic
Is your muscle growth re-building protein synthesis pathway. E.G. Sprinting utlizes mTOR more readily.
AMPK Pathway: Catabolic
Endurance athletes are an example of athletes that need to break down and utilize stored energy with great efficiency.
In-season AFL athletes are constantly stimulating their AMPK pathway due to the combination of neruological, aerobic and anaerobic demands.
Accumulated metabolic fatigue is a terrible environment to developing strength, power and speed.
It take’s no knowledge to train someone to failure. But it take’s a smart coach to get someone stronger, faster and more robust.
If you look at work:rest ratio’s, exercise metabolism is interplayed between intensity, duration, rest period and mode.
Recovery: 3-5min (ATP) 5-8min (full ATP-PC phosphogen recovery)
Note: Take into account the nervous can take 2-5x longer to recover approximately.
By-Products: Lactate / H+
When lactate accumulation overtakes lactate removal the muscle becomes acidic, it lowers the PH and inhibits nerve conduction.
If we’re trying to improve strength, power and speed and we’re training at high volume with minimal rest periods and the muscular and NS hasn’t fully recovered than your inhibiting nerve conduction – i.e. your bodies ability to produce force into the ground. You massively reduce your bodies ability to recruit high threshold fast twitch motor units. When we’re developing power and speed our goal is to recruit those very motor untis. If there is fatigue, you’re going to inhibit them. At that point your not developing maximal strength and power but, work capacity, conditioning and strength endurance.
Lactate Buffers: Bicarbonate. Buffer’s the lactate from accumulating at such a rapid rate.
Is the most efficient pathway. It metablises energy slowly and produces force slowly. That’s why strength & power development has to come through the ATP-PC pathway.
Force Velocity Curve
The relationship between force output, and speed of movement.
The heavier the load, the slower the movement – the higher the force output. The lighter the load, the quicker the movement – the higher velocity.
Everything about the FV Curve / neuromusclar system, is increasing explosive force generating capacity for athletic development. So you want to shift the curve to the right where greater force is produced at quicker movement speed’s. Whereas a powerlifter will want to shift the curve upwards where velocity and speed is not the priority.
We hit different parts of the curve depending on what quality we want to develop.
High Force: Low Velocity
E.G. If we want to hit high force – low velocity you will probably train your traditional strength lifts over 85% 1RM.
Many think a 1:1 work:rest ratio is a training high intensity. But in fact you’ve dropped the intensity because you can’t work at a higher speed/velocity. You’re actually slowing down so it’s more aerobic. 20sec:10sec rest is not high intensity, it’s lower intensity. Just because you’re RPE is higher doesn’t mean your producing more force with speed.
High Force: High Velocity
If we want to hit high force, high velocity we’re utilizing the Olympic lifts. Moving heavy weight rapidly. You can’t do an Olympic lifting movement slow.
Sprinting. Plyometrics (speed strength). Prowler and Sled work.
Textbooks say different things, coaches say another. Understand there’s a place for everything as long as you can justify it and get results.
All numbers are in flux and should be autoregulated on the fly to adapt to the individual athlete. Very simply put, if the athlete is not ready and needs more rest – rest. Just because a textbooks sais 2min doesn’t mean you need to stick to it. A book doesn’t understand subjectivity.
Equations Relevant To Improving Strength & Power
Force = Mass x Acceleration (F = M x A)
If you want to improve someone’s force there’s two way’s to do it: Increase load or move the load quicker.
If you’re coaching a novice (training age of 0), nearly every session they should be progressively overloading lifting slightly heavier weight, at quicker movement speed with better technique.
The first 4-6 week’s of a novice’s resistance training is neurological adaptation. The nervous system becomes more efficient at recruiting and deactivating motor units in a specific pattern.
Adaptation is load, movement, task specific. The way you train, reflects how you adapt: specific muscular and motor pattern, time and coordination. (SAID: specific adaptation to imposed demands).
You do not have to lift heavy to improve force output. Move the weight quicker.
Power = Force x Velocity (P = F x V)
Improving force/strength potential:
The first thing you want to do in improving someone’s power is increasing their force generating capacity. You can’t express something rapidly if you don’t have it to begin with – strength is the foundation of the athletic base. Once you have the foundation, then you can get more specific.
Though the athlete will eventually get to a point of diminishing returns where strength training will no longer improve power and speed. That’s when you implement higher training velocity specific interventions, i.e. power, speed and agility training.
If you’re training with heavy weights (high 1RM) consistently all year round your training your NS to fire slow.
Moving the bar / weight quicker with more intent.
What Is A Motor Unit?
A motor neuron, a nerve cell and the muscle fibers it innervates. The more fibers you recruit the stronger you are.
What Is a Sarcomere ?
Is a force generating unit of the muscular system.
Primary Motor Cortex (M1)
Drives and controls contractions:
An action potential in the skeletal muscle cell is what triggers muscle cell contraction.
The nervous system recruits motor units – motor units in turn activate muscular tissue.
Henneman’s Size Principle
Motor units are recruited in a systematic structured preferential manner. There is no selective recruitment. The nervous system cannot override henneman’s principle (as far as we know) to recruit fast twitch over slow twitch. It recruits from small – large.
Under load, motor units are recruited from smallest to largest. In practice, this means that slow-twitch, low-force, fatigue-resistant muscle fibers are activated before fast-twitch, high-force, less fatigue-resistant muscle fibers.
All Or None Principle
States that when a neuron fires it sends an action potential to the muscle fibers which must innervate to 100% of its capacity.
Muscle Fibre Types
Can you change the number of muscle fibres?
I (slow twitch) – Contraction Speed: Slow
IIA (fast twitch) – Contraction Speed: Fast
IIB/x (fast twitch) – Contraction Speed: Very Fast
Type IIA muscle fibres can have the potential to have a mix of slow and fast twitch qualities.
“A Uni lecturer advised us to start thinking of fibre types on a spectrum – they really aren’t definitively grouped into the confines of labels and cannot ‘truly change’. However they can move up (towards IIx attributes) or down (towards IIa or Type I in nature)”
IIB may take characteristics of IIA during prolonged resistance training. E.G. When people think they’re training for power but the athlete is not metabolically and neurologically fresh. Essentially metabolically fucking someone for long periods of time month over month is when the fibre can make that adaptation.
3 Ways To Recruit Fast Twitch High Threshold Motor Units
1. Heavy Load @ Low Reps
2. Sub-maximal Load @ Explosively Lifted
Bar speed is moved fast with high velocity intent.
The best exercises to choose for power development are one’s that project into free space.
If you use a traditional movements like a bench / squat / DL – the limiting factor is the deceleration at the end range of motion.
So you’re getting what’s called antagonist co-activation which relate to:
Golgi tendon organ is found in the tendon, it’s like the ‘bigger brother’ – it inhibits force production. It detects tension on the muscle. If there’s too much tension, it inhibits muscular contraction.
That’s why one of the goals of performance training is to override inhibition, and maximize excitation of the NS.
The muscle spindle is excitatory, and it’s in the skeletal striated muscles, which detect rate of change of the muscle.
So for power development, instead of choosing a bench press, choose a med ball chess pass. Instead of a squat, use a squat jump, or a box jump. You’re projecting into free space and maximizing agonist activity and decreasing antagonist co-activity.
3. Sub-maximal Load @ Lifted to Failure
Bar speed would be at a much slower velocity towards the end.
This method is the most inefficient for athlete development because your training the NS to fire slower.
There is an exception who you would use it for: novice’s.
The reason is motor patterning and technique where the NS need’s consistent stimulation and repetition to ingrain the new motor patterns.
3 Factors To Motor Unit Recruitment
(Strength: 80-85%+ 1RM)
2. Speed (Intent)
2 Factors to Intent:
1. Actual Movement Speed
2. Physical Intent.
Intent to move the weight quickly is critical for neurological adaptations to occur.
You may have a heavy load on the bar but as long as your intent to move the weight quickly is there, we’re still going to get neurological adaptations.
2 Improvement’s from Intent:
1. Increased motor unit recruitment
2. Enhance the training effect
3. Biochemical Situation (PH)
The acidic state of the muscle.
When lactate accumulation overtakes lactate removal the muscle becomes acidic, it lowers the PH and inhibits nerve conduction. Therefore decreases power and strength output.
“Strength is a neuromuscular quality. Power is a neural quality.”
Power is highly dependent on the nervous system’s ability to recruit and train high threshold fast twitch motor units. That is called neurological efficiency. That’s why power is a neural quality.
Strength is a neuromuscular quality that encompasses the nervous system and muscular system.
With power adaptation, it’s a neurological quality. It’s very highly dependent on the NS’s ability to recruit and train high threshold motor units.
When your moving through an explosive movement the actual TUT on the muscle is very low because of the rapid movement speed. However, you could say the actual tension is high because we’re recruiting high threshold motor units, but in this case we’re talking about actual contract time of the muscle.
When you’re developing strength, if it’s a heavy load the movement speed is much slower, so the TUT is higher.
5 Area’s Of Developing Power / Maximal Neuromuscular Development
1. Slow Velocity Strength
SVS is especially relevant when the athlete is a novice to strength training and lacks proprioception.
Need to teach neural efficiency – which is hard to teach when movement is rapid.
When you move slower you get more motor feedback to the M1 (motor cortex).
Also enables us to generate high amounts of tension and teach bracing.
Allows coach to troubleshoot areas of poor movement patterning and adjust more effectively.
SVS is the heavy strength lifts – high force low velocity lifts. (Primal pattern lifts).
“You can’t express something rapidly if you don’t have it to begin with.”
2. Fast Velocity Strength
Lifting heavy weight quickly. E.G. Olympic lifts and it’s variations.
3. SSC (strength shorten cycle)
Utilizing the elastic component of the muscle. Muscles are elastic in nature.
If someone is struggling at top end speed improving their SSC is going to be the a very important thing.
Plyometrics. Minimal ground contact time <0.2sec.
Note: A box jump is not a true plyometric movement, it’s a jump. To make it a plyometric movement you would perform a vertical jump into the box jump to perform the minimal ground contact.
“The difference between how long the muscle spends in an expanded state before contracting””The time between stretching out and shortening again really quickly.” E.G. The time. – Jay
“The time between the concentric and eccentric phase” – Google Time spend on the ground before exploding up from a depth jump.
“A jump does not have enough elastic or potential energy to be a plyo. Remember a plyo is for developing elasticity (although tendon stiffness is vital) so if there is a lack of elasticity i.e a jump, compared to a bound or depth jump then for me it’s not a plyo. Each to their own. But final point, the magnitude/size of the muscle length change isn’t as important at the speed at which it happens (what spindles detect). Therefore a counter movement jump doesn’t create as rapid stretch as a bound or hurdle hop which is why I can’t categorise them both plyos” – Jay Ellis
4. RFD (rate of force development)
Anything where your trying to intentionally move the weight as quickly as possible. RFD arguably doesn’t include a deaccerlation phase in the lift while being performed at high speed.
In terms of improving explosiveness/RFD we don’t want the muscle in fatigued acidic state. We need the muscle recruiting high threshold motor units to improve RFD.
E.G. Anything that is projecting into free space with no deceleration. Med Balls. Keg throws. Accommodating resistance or even traditional lifts that project into free space.
5. Inter-Muscular Coordination
The relationship between the agonist and the antagonist muscles. Having the neural capacity to control the movement.
Intra = increase motor unit recruitment / increase firing frequency = rate coding
Inter = Motor learning and skill acquisition / inhibiting antagonist co-activation and maximizing agonist activity (learning the motor pattern)
There is a skill to the expression of strength. Lifting is a motor skill. You have to become competence at the movement to become efficient at it.
High quality eccentrics are a great way to develop this.
To become movement competent in:
1. DL / RDL
3. Bench Press
5. OH Press
Order of teaching for a novice: (2 day split)
1B: Bodyweight Squat w/band bottom up
2A: Pushup (on knee / eccentrics)
2B: Inverted Row
3A: Double Leg Hip Thrust
3B: Paloff Press
1: RDL Snatch Grip (more hamstring engagement)
2: Trap Bar DL
Why trap bar and RDL in same session?
RDL’s develop eccentric load through the hamstring which corrects the quad-hamstring strength ratio.
3A: BB OH Press
3B: Chinup Supinated
4A: Split Squat
4B: Paloff Press / Lateral Flexion
Loading Parameters Guidelines
Neural vs. Metabolic Adaptations
1-5 reps: More Neural Adaptations
5-10+ reps: More Metabolic Adaptations
If we want more neurological adaptation we’re going to move towards the left side of the rep continuum.
If want more muscular changes like hypertrophy where going to be towards the right.
But you don’t get to pick one or the other and just switch the other’s off. You get all 3: neurological, muscular, motor learning/skill acquisition.
The degree to which adaptation is being increased is dictated by the loading parameters / rep range.
E.G. If you do 2 reps, you’re predominately going to get neural adaptations, but you’re still going to get a small degree of hypertrophy.
Characteristics Of Developing Strength
It’s more effective to develop a strength base first because you can do my reps at a higher weight – meaning you’re going to grow more. Strength facilitates everything.
Pure Maximal Strength:
High Intensity: 80-85%+ 1RM
Traditional Strength Lifts (Big 6)
Actual Movement Speed’s will be Slow Velocity
Longer Rest Periods: 3-5min
Why? We want majority ATP recovery because we want maximal effort. If there’s fatigue, the PH is lower, the muscle is acidic and there’s a build up of lactate and metabolic by-products your not going to be able to recruit high threshold fast twitch motor units.
1. Mechanical Tension
We want the set to be a long duration. Hence the reason the rep ranges are between 8-12.
2. Metabolic Stress
In this case we want the metabolic by-products. We’re deriving that energy through that anaerobic glycoltic pathway where it has the by-product of H+ and lactate.
3. Muscle Damage
That’s why we want high sets and high reps to create that muscular disruption and remodeling.
Moderate Intensity: 60-80% of 1RM
High Volume: 4-6 sets
Reps: 8-12 reps
Tempo: Slower tempo on all lifts to enforce eccentric loading where the highest potential for muscle damage is.
Hierarchy of Hypertrophy Factors
4. Hormone Release
Highest Intensity: Speed / Intent / Maximal Effort (Dynamic Effort: 40-60% of 1RM)
Reps: <4 (Avoid metabolic fatigue to derive energy through ATP-PC)
Choose exercises that project into free space.
Why it’s less than strength work is because it’s more of a neurological quality. Strength training is high neural AND high muscular load. Power training is high neural low muscular load.
If an athlete has a higher training age compared to a novice which one will you give longer rest periods to?
The highly trained individual: they’re more neurologically adapt.
E.G. A novice may squat at 80% of their max and they can only recruit 85% of their motor units. A highly trained individual squats at 80% of their max and they can recruit 97% of their motor units because they’re more neurologically efficient. Therefore the highly trained individual is going to produce a higher level of work output and become more neurologically taxed.
GPP: early in the season developing work capacity. Gen Pop who wants general conditioning and strength.
40-60% of 1RM
Traditional Strength Lifts
Strength Tests Standards
DL & Squat Varient: Min: 1.5 x BW / Ideal: 1.75-2 x BW
Bench Press / Bench Pull: Min: 1 x BW / Ideal: 1.25-1.5 x BW
When programming the next phase post testing, take 91% of 1RM and prescribe the next phase of training based on 91%, rather than 100%. Therefore still allowing room for bar speed and intent.
Why? Decrease the potential for neural fatigue and injury while still being able create adaptations in/off season for athletes.
Important Caveat On Using Variations
WSSC uses a plethora of variations for each compound lifts, example – squat: band squat, front squat, back squat, dynamic effort, goblet squat, sumo, zircher etc.
Crucial point on changing the variations is that by changing little thing’s like grip, bar and feet position we change neural recruitment pattern which illicit’s overload because your placing a higher task complexity, or a stress on the nervous system.
Josh: 24th June 16′
There’s no perfect squat. There’s ‘your perfect squat’ and ‘my perfect squat.’ You need to build the squat around the person which is largely dependent on their structure, musculoskeletal limitations and goals.
Anteversion & Retroversion
Anteversion: Rotated forwards (towards the front of the body)
Retroversion: Rotated backwards (towards the back of the body)
Femoral anteversion and retroversion is dictated by the way the head of the femur sits in the acetabulum and rotates. This is the structural characteristic that help guide and dictate range of motion and positioning for the squat.
Testing range of motion of internal external rotation of the femur.
If the person come’s back with only a small degree of external rotation then it may be an indicator the head of the femur isn’t sitting optimally in the acetabulum. A symptom like this may not be best suited for a wide stance squat because he/she can’t hit external rotation from a structural perspective.
Squat Form Symptoms
Valgus Knee Cave In:
Weak glute med – because glute is an external rotator.
Josh: 8th July 16′
Compound multi joint triple extension movement.
Develop fast twitch high threshold motor units of the posterior chain to increase output of:-
Power = Force x Velocity
Force = Mass x Acceleration
To be powerful you need to build strength, but to be strong you don’t need power.
Increase rate of force development.
Athletic development for ground based athletes.
Reduce injury potential.
Can be a introduction to Olympic lifts.
Sumo vs. Conventional
Anatomy, structure and comfortability will help dictate which option a person will choose if not constricted to a sport. For example, you may consider sumo if you have long limb’s/lever’s.
Sport Specific + Range Of Motion
If the sport requires the athlete simply get the barbell from the ground to a lockout position it’s smartest to take the path of least resistance picking the reduced range of motion of the sumo (given structure is favorable).
Deadlift vs Squat Transferrence
The deadlift is usually practiced with no eccentric phase while the squat has both concentric and eccentric loading. This is the main reason why the squat is going to have a higher chance of carry over to the deadlift, while the deadlift may not carry over as much to the squat.
“Conventional arguably allows for more hip flexion and extension, because you have to get your hips all the way back, because the femur’s ‘has to go somewhere’, and if your in that sagital plane – it’s going to go backwards. Whereas if your in a sumo, and your going more into the frontal plane, the femur’s can go out – meaning less hip flexion and hip extension.”
Allows for more effective lat activation and generally increased total tension throughout the body. A good precursor to Olympic lifting.
Adding accommodating resistance like bands and chains allows us to overload a portion of the movement to develop strength a specific range of motion so when you return back to the original movement your overall a lot stronger at it.
E.G. Someone whose overusing their erector spinae and not engaging glutes and exploding through hip extension fully. Holding and actively pulling a resistance band around someone’s waist provides resistance to push through to help engage the hips and glutes more effectively.
Why? To aid the process of getting past sticking points. If your dead lifting over an elevated platform the bar has to travel further thus increasing the ROM and TUT so when you get back to the regular ROM of the lift it’s essentially easier to lift.
Trap Bar vs. Conventional
Trap bar allows the load to remain directly in the center of your mass allowing the bar to travel through a vertical bar path during the concentric and eccentric phase of the lift. This is one reason we see individuals being able to pull higher weight than conventional due to the increased rate of force development trap bar encourages.
Additionally, it may be an simpler starting point with less motor learning, proprioception and mobility required that the conventional demands in the form of hinging and pelvic control.
Trap bar may also be a good option for in season athletes who are having to constantly recover from the high amounts of stress and load. Conventional can be very neurally taxing and can put a lot of potential load through the spine. Trap bar helps to mitigate both these thing’s while still allowing us to focus on rate of force development through the deadlift movement.
Why Would We Reduce Eccentric Loading?
Example, a rack pull vs RDL. A rack pull’s TUT primarily stay’s within the concentric phase whereas the RDL has a much longer eccentric phase to it.
Generally, dropping eccentric loading reduces the likelihood of DOMS due to lower TUT and muscle fibre breakdown. Can be a good option for in season athlete.
Relative Strength vs. Maximal / Absolute Strength
Relative Strength: The maximum force produced in relation to body weight.
Maximal Strength: The maximum amount of force produced.
General High Level Strength Standards:
Deadlift: 2-2.5 x BW| Squat: 1.5-2 x BW | Bench Press: 1.25-1.5 x BW
Movements Coupled With Movements
In other word’s, as one joint angle change’s it’s going to promote another joint angle to change in the process.
Example, if you anteriorly tilt at the pelvis the femur’s naturally internally rotate. Conversely if you posteriorly tilt you go into external rotation at the hip’s and knee’s.
Breaking Down Joint Angle’s Of Deadlift
Ankle: Plantar Flexion: Agonist – Gastrocnemius | Antagonist – Tibialis Anterior | Synergist – Soleus
Knee: Extension: Agonist – Rectus Femoris, Vastus Intermedius, Vastus Lateralis, Vastus Medialis |
Antagonist – Bicep Femoris | Synergist – N/A
Hip: Extension: Agonist – Glute Complex
Antagonist: 5 Hip Flexors – Psoas, Illacus, Rectus Femoris, Sartorius, TFL
Synergist: Hamstring Complex, Adductor Magnus
Upper Body Horizontal
James: July 16′
Improve posture and shoulder health.
Through the internally rotated position a lot of people find themselves in from sitting and looking at devices the chest musculature get’s tight and the upper back get’s weak: Upper cross syndrome.
A person’s sport may require a high amount of musculature around their frame to support their play style and/or position.
Multi-joint, multi-planer (sagital and frontal) full kinetic chain movement.
Joint Actions During Concentric Phase
Shoulder: Horizontal Adduction | Agonist – Pectoralis Major + Anterior Deltoid
Scapula: Many argue that there shouldn’t be any scapula movement because their suppose to be pinned to the bench. But some may argue there may be a small amount of scapula:
Protraction (arguably): Agonist – Serratus Anterior + Pectoralis Minor
Elbow: Extension | Agonist – Tricep Brachii
Straight Bar Bath: Bar travels in a straight line from top position to chest and back.
J-Curve: Pull down to chest and when you press up you curve back slightly over the shoulder. J-curve is usually heralded as the bar path to take to lift the most amount of weight.
Why Someone May Want To Avoid Bench Press / Excessive Upper Body Pushing
Shoulder impingement, kyphosis, elbow, wrist, hand pathology.
Joint Actions During Concentric Phase
Shoulder: Horizontal Abduction | Agonist – Rhomboid | Extension: Agonist – Latissimus Dorsi
Scapula: Retraction: Agonist – Rhomboids
Elbow: Flexion – Bicep Brachii
Femoroacetabular Impingement (FAI)
Lamens: When you get to a certain range of motion, you can’t go any further into hip flexion. This can make it very challenging to hold certain rowing, deadlifting and squatting positions.
Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a condition where the bones of the hip are abnormally shaped. Because they do not fit together perfectly, the hip bones rub against each other and cause damage to the joint.
A slippery tissue called articular cartilage covers the surface of the ball and the socket. It creates a smooth, low friction surface that helps the bones glide easily across each other.
The acetabulum is ringed by strong fibrocartilage called the labrum. The labrum forms a gasket around the socket, creating a tight seal and helping to provide stability to the joint.
3 types of FAI:
Pincer. This type of impingement occurs because extra bone extends out over the normal rim of the acetabulum. The labrum can be crushed under the prominent rim of the acetabulum.
Cam. In cam impingement the femoral head is not round and cannot rotate smoothly inside the acetabulum. A bump forms on the edge of the femoral head that grinds the cartilage inside the acetabulum.
Combined. Combined impingement just means that both the pincer and cam types are present.
Grips & Muscle Recruitment
Supinated: Focus: Bicep Complex
Neutral: Lat’s & Bicep Combination
Wide Grip Row: Rear Deltoids
Close Grip Row: Lat’s & Bicep Combination
Is the pattern of muscle contractions and motion that occurs between your scapula and your humerus. E.G. Keeping the scapula retracted during a bench press and actively protracting and retracting during a row.
This is relevant because when your scapulohumeral rhythm becomes abnormal – due to pain, weakness or muscle inco-ordination – you are rendered more likely to suffer shoulder clicking, pain or rotator cuff injury.
Rotator Cuff Muscles: Large to Smallest
Subscapularis / Supraspinatus / Infraspinatus / Teres Minor
Roles: Int/Ext Rotation | Elevation/Depression | Upward/Downward Rotation
Upper Body: SMR / Mobilize / Activate
Addressing the tight area’s with SMR and activating the weak area’s.
Lat’s / Pec Complex / Deltoid Complex
Rhomboids / Trapezius / (Band Pullaparts / Face Pulls)
Rotator Cuff (Band internal + external rotation’s)
Thoracic Spine (Flexsion + Extension over foam roller, cat-camel) / Shoulder’s (Band dislocations)
Upper Body Vertical
James: 12th Aug 16′
Joint Actions & Muscles Used During Concentric Phase
Scapula: Upward Rotation + Elevation = Levator Scapulae + Upper Trapezius
Shoulder: ABduction + Flexion = Deltoids
Elbow: Extension = Tricep
Grip’s Influence On Muscle Groups
Pronated: Lats / Rear Deltoid | Supinated: Bicep | Neutral: Combination
Joint Actions & Muscles Used During Concentric Phase
Scapula: Retraction = Rhomboid | Depression = Latissimus Dorsi + Lower Trapezius
Shoulder: ADduction = Latissimus Dorsi
Elbow: Flexion = Biceps
Upper Body: SMR / Mobilize / Activate
Lat’s / Pec Complex / Deltoid Complex / Trapezius / Erector Spinae
Shoulders: Internal & External Rotation / T-Spine
Rhomboids / Lower Trapezius / Rotator Cuff
Kieren: 29th July 16′
1. Muscle Imbalances
Cross Education: “which describes the strength gain in the opposite, untrained limb following unilateral resistance training.”
E.G. If you a bicep curl on one arm while the other arm is broken you get a neural adaptation transfer to the other arm without training it directly.
“The magnitude of cross education is approximately equal to 7.8% of the initial strength of the untrained limb.” [Source]
3. Take Joint Angle Through Full Range of Motion
E.G. Very often you will have people who will not be able to perform full range bilateral movements like squats but can perform a simple split squat with full range of motion.
As a result the joint angle is being put through the full range of motion.
4. Bilateral Deficit
A deficit occurs when the summed unilateral force is greater than the bilateral force.
“The sum of force production of both limbs will be greater than the force production through a bilateral lift”
“The total force of the bilateral lift is not greater than the sum of 2 unilateral lifts combined”
E.G. You can’t jump twice as high with both legs as you can with one leg.
E.G.2. You can bilateral squat 100kg 1RM but the sum of both legs is going to be greater than 100kg.
The underlying cause of the deficit remains unknown, but some hypothesize you increase neural drive with a unilateral lift giving you the ability to recruit high threshold motor units at more efficiency.
Knee Dominant Unilateral
Woodfords Variation Progression: Split Squat -> Forward Lunge -> Reverse Lunge -> Walking Lunge -> Step Up -> Rotational -> Bulgarian Split Squat -> Pistol Squat Variation (to a box / assisted / counter movement
How would you make a split squat more knee dominant?
Shifting your weight forward so your knee tracks over your toe creates a positive shin angle, increases the range of motion through your knee and makes it more quad dominant.
How would you make a split squat more glute dominant?
Just the opposite. A neutral shin angle. A front foot elevated split squat can be a good option.
Hip Dominant Supplentary
Woodfords Variation Progression: Double Leg Bridge w/Band -> Single Leg Bridge -> Double Leg Hip Thrust -> SL Hip Thrust -> Swiss Ball Double Leg Curl -> Swiss Ball SL Leg Curl -> Single Leg RDL (Arabesque) -> BB Arabesque -> Nordics
What muscles will activate more with bent leg?
Bent leg hip extension is more glute dominant
The hamstring is in a contracted position therefore they cant generate as much force compared to if the leg was fully extended.
Protect and stabilize the spine.
Transverse Abdominis: Main Stabilizer of the Trunk: Trunk Flexsion
Rectus Abdominis: Trunk Flexsion
Internal Obliques / External Obliques: Rotation
Multifidus / Erector Spinae / Quadratus Lumborum
Multifidus: Responsible for extension of the spine (part of the erector spinae group)
Erector Spinae: Trunk Extension.
Quadratus Lumborum: Lateral Flexion
The muscle fibers run vertically so rotation can’t be a movement the QL does. Where the oblique muscle fibers run horizontally hence their role in rotation.
3 Main Joint Angles Of The Core & Their Anti-Movements
Rotation: Landmines / Russian Twists / Woodchops / Med Ball Throws
Lateral Flexion: Standing Lateral Crunches w/Load
Anti-Rotation: Paloff Press
Anti-Lateral Flexion: Loaded Carries / Side Planks
Anti-Trunk Flexion: Vertical Paloff Press / Plate Press
To create a well rounded athlete we need to train the core in all main joint angles and their relevant anti-movements relevant to individuals needs and goals. Anti-movements are especially important to being stable through multiple planes of movement, teach core engagement and implement transference of force through anti-movements.
Planes Of Movement
Frontal/Coronal: An easy cue to remember, imagine moving to your left or right to pick up an actual ‘corona’ drink.
Sagittal: ‘Straight up and down’ – starting with S. When we’re talking about our main compound bilateral lifts they’re technically in the sagittal plane because they’re straight up and down.
Transverse: ‘Move around the universe/globe.’ – twisting.
Tom: Speed 30th Sep 2016
Speed = Distance/Time.
Point A-B in the shortest time possible.
A linear quality. (Whereas velocity is directional).
2 Factors To Speed
Stride Length: Dependent On
The amount of force that can be produced into the ground – relative strength.
Can be improved by relative strength. If you are stronger, per relative to your body weight, your going to apply more force to the ground – jump higher and run faster.
Rate of force development – genetics.
Both qualities increase as you get faster but as you’re accelerating your stride length and frequency will naturally level out and reach a point of diminishing returns. Sprinting is essentially a race against who can deaccelerate last.
Example Program For Ground Based Athlete
20m build up steady acceleration / 20m acceleration / 20m deaccelerate/ walk back to the start – repeat
Common Linear Running Injuries
Low Back Pain
Hamstring Pulls/Tears: Bicep Femoris
Change Of Direction Injuries
ACL / PCL / MCL / LCL (because of all the torsion and valgus/varus forces on the knee joint)
Weak/Inactive Glutes / Posterior Chain
Tightness / Poor ROM / Poor Mobility
Acceleration v Sprinting
A: Building speed / Forward lean / positive shin angle
S: Maintaining speed / Up-tall / Neutral shin angle
Don’t always try and refine and change one’s natural style of sprinting without mastering the basic principles of sprinting such as:
1. Forward body lean in the acceleration phase
Is the most biomechanically advantageous position to produce as much force into the ground and forward propulsion in order to build up to max speed.
(Be aware of a sports context: A netballer may not value the cue of as much ‘forward body lean’ because they’re confined to a reltaviely small space compared to a soccer/football field where their sprinting phases are much longer)
2. Violent Arms
Assist in building speed.
3. 90 Degree Arms
Biomechanically optimal position for the stretch shorten cycle and force production.
4. Long Legs
Triple extension emphasis.
5. Heel Up – Toe Up
By dorsi flexing and powerfully plantar flexing creates the optimal stretch shorten cycle and powerful concentric/eccentric muscle contraction building elastic energy.
6. Breathing: Focus on pushing out air.
“During accelerating and sprinting our foot should be striking underneath the hip.”
Injury Prevention: Because if we’re striking too far forward in front of our hip we cause over striding which largely increases our risk of injury because of all the extra torque and load through the hamstrings.
Change of Direction v Agility
COD = Pre-planned (Shuffling / 5-10-5 / Ladder Drills)
Agility = Reactive (Visual / Kinesthetic / Auditory)
Key considerations before coaching agility & COD:
Attained primal patterns competency / basic movement control / body awareness.
Good unilateral control which is extremely important. If one doesn’t have the strength in their posterior chain and core to maintain a safe knee position when they change direction as they instead valgus in every time they plant their foot or land, than they may need to be regressed and continue to work on body control and basic strength.
Push to move (off outside leg)
Athletic stance / Low center of gravity
You can change direction much more effectively because you have a low center of mass which allows higher force production.
Upper body moves with lower body
E.G. During a change of direction movement where you may plant your foot, absorb breaking force and change position into another direction it is not uncommon for the lower body to lag behind the upper body. This can be attributed to poor technique or weak trunk control.
Ballistics / Plyometrics / Med Ball
Tom: Ballisitcs / Plyo 4th Nov 2016
Ballistic: Involves a fast concentric acceleration leading into a projection into free space. High firing rate, high force contraction, brief contraction time.
E.G. Throwing, jumping, kicking,
Activating high threshold motor units through high load and speed- hennemens size principle.
There has been some correlation that if you have a longer facicle length you have the potential to produce more power from that muscle.
Faster athletes usually have longer facicle lengths. Hence power, speed and ballistic training can improve facicle length.
The direction of the fibre. [More info to correlation of power and strength]
Yuri Verkhoshansky found a correlation with athletes that had the ability to produce greater force had shorter ground contact times resulting in better times (SSC).
Ground contact time: <0.2 sec. (Can feel “unaturally quick”)
Vertical Jump? Not a plyo because your starting from the ground which won’t have a ground contact time of <0.2sec. It is a ‘jump’.
Box Jump? No. Same reason as above.
Depth Jump? Yes.
“Ramping up involves doing a specific number of sets of an exercise, each set decreasing in reps but increasing in load, before hitting your work sets.”
and/or for power work you can perform skipping, low volume/load jumping and throwing.
E.G. If your performing a depth jump you could perform a depth jump from half the height to neurally ramp.
Neural ramping is essentially what happens during a 1RM test and/or should ideally happen during low rep high load movements.
1. Joint lubrication:
“As you move specific tissues and joints in your body, they become lubricated in synovial fluid. The primary function of synovial fluid is to reduce friction in the joint space, thus making movements smoother and more efficient. The more you move, the more synovial fluid will bathe the joints and articular cartilage. The more efficiently your joints are lubricated, the less the risk of joint or cartilage injuries secondary to training.”
2. Increase Core Temperature & Tissue Blood Flow
“The more active a specific muscle or soft tissue, the more you’ll siphon blood to these tissues to maintain metabolic balance.”
3. Activate Neuromuscular Coordination and Stabilization
“Priming movements by increasing the volume of specific training is one of the easiest and most effective ways to set your body up for long-term success in any movement.
Though increasing the volume too much while not manipulating the loads, tempos, and rest periods of each ramp-up set can lead to pre-fatiguing the active musculature, which is usually a bad thing unless that was the intended goal.”
Programming / Physiology / Periodization
Matt: 5th Aug 16′ + 9th Sep 16′
“Fatigue doesn’t differentiate, it accumulates.”
“Strength is a product of the nervous system”
The main objective for S&C coach for their athletes is to develop their “neuromuscular profile”
If you have tissue that you can’t activate and use efficiently through quality powerful movements whats the point of having that tissue for the athlete? (Except in the case of body armoring)
“The logical and systematic sequencing of training factors in an integrative fashion in order to optimize specific training outcomes at predetermined time points.” -Tudor Bompa
(The father of sports periodization theory, a training system developed by the Soviets that emphasised variable loads for optimal performance throughout the year rather than maintaining a constant training focus.)
AKA to simply put it:
‘An intelligent plan’
Macro Cycle: In-Season / Off-Season / 6 month / 1 year
Meso Cycle: 3/4/8 week block.
Micro Cycle: Days / 1 week.
To manipulate variables of periodsiation.
Frequency / Intensity / Time / Type
Goals Of Periodization
1. Promote the long term development of the athlete.
2. Manage training to target a specific biomotor quality (strength/power/speed) outcome.
3. Optimize athletic performance at a specific time point for competition.
Volume decreases as intensity increases over time getting less metabolic stress as you focus on training the nervous system.
E.G. Going from 3x8x50kg to 3x6x57.5kg
“I use linear periodization for most beginner athletes, especially if I have a good amount of time to work with them and they have never trained before. It allows the athlete to move through four mesocycle phases: general physical preparedness (GPP), special preparatory phase (SPP), competition phase (C), and transition phase (T).” – Chris Barnard
Non-Linear Periodsation / Conjugate / Concurrent / Westside
Varies training volume and intensity in shorter periods of time.
Several abilities are coupled together throughout the training.
1. Stimulate the NS / muscular / cardiovascular to their maximality without metabolic fatigue.
2. Allow glycogen stores to recover.
3. Allow soft tissue / micro trauma’s / scar tissue to recover / decrease inflammation
4. Prevention of de-training – maintain.
Olympic Lifting Progression
Explosive concurrent (working together) triple extension.
Think about the goal of the movement when picking the exercise. A snatch has an even higher task complexity and mobility/stability demands with the overhead position. You’re going to get nearly the exact same physiological adaptations from a hip dominent posterior chain perspective. Find your minimum effective dose – no need to get fancy.
1. RDL / Keg Toss
Can be interchanged and used at the same time. Many junior athletes for example may start with focusing on keg tossing for a couple meso’s before progressing to RDL.
Note: WSSC methods RDL from a high hip position which is not conventional standard from oly lifting because our goal for athletes is posterior chain development, glute/ham synergy explosiveness as they glute/ham as a prime mover. Whereas standard oly lifting tries to get an even contribution from a range of different muscle groups including anterior chain/quads. Thus it’s harder to get vertical displacement from the WSSC RDL position.
2. RDL Triple Extension (Ankles)
We’re going from RDL which is HOR displacement into triple extension, high pull etc where starting to differentiate that force into a vertical plane.
3. RDL Triple Extension Shrug
4. Jump Shrug
Don’t always use it. Jumping is just a cue to get someone to apply for more force into the ground.
5 Hang Clean High Pull
(Starting at the knee)
6. Hang Clean
7. Power Clean
8. Clean & Jerk Progressions
(OH Press, Push Press, Push Jerk, Split Jerk)
1-4 exactly the same with snatch grip.
5. Single Arm Snatch (DBL)
6. Clean Grip Hang Snatch
7. Hang Snatch
8. Full Snatch
Task Complexity vs Adaptation
Why would we spend 30min patterning a clean when we could use a keg toss variation that gives nearly the exact same adaptation in 5min. Especially when you have someone newer whose not 100% bought in to your methods you can show them physiological changes faster through simpler movements that take much less time to teach.
James: 7th Oct 2016
“Testing is the gathering of data regarding to levels of athletic performance whether it be pre, intra or post intervention or training to determine if the training intervention has worked effectively or not. Is also validates the role as of the coach and motivates buy in from the client.”
Testing athletic characteristics/traits that are relevant to that athletes sport.
2 Methods Of Testing
Qualitative. (Observed/Opinions/RPE Scale)
Quantitative. (Measured by specific tests/procedures)
Why We Test?
Predict future athletic performance / Indicate weaknesses / Measure improvements / Validate effectiveness or ineffectiveness of training intervention / Motivate athletes / Divide team into training groups based on performance indicators
“Some studies have shown strength can vary up to 15kg day to day.”
7 Stages Of The Evaluation Process
1. Selection of a characteristic to be tested
What are the biomotor quality needs of the athlete/team?
2. Selection of a testing method
Finding a test that is relevant.
3. Collection of data
Standardize data and minimize variability.
4. Analysis of results
5. Decide on future intervention
6. Apply intervention
Implement plan to apply and use data. What type of periodization? (how is it specific to what you want to achieve)
“Tests should be designed so pre/post testing are as similar as possible so that the only changed variable is the variable being tested.”
Though this is usually very challenging because life is unpredictable.
What determines the accuracy and effectiveness of a test?
Reliability: Is the test repeatable?
“The degree to which an assessment tool produces stable and consistent results”
Validity: Did the test follow all testing protocols?
“How well a test measures what it is purported to measure.”
James: 14th Oct 2016
1. Fat Loss
2. Maximize EPOC.
“Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption is a measurably increased rate of oxygen intake following strenuous activity intended to erase the body’s “oxygen deficit” as a result of high intensity training.
AKA “when your exercising anaerobically your using energy without O2. So when your body needs to replenish that energy it requires O2. To get that O2 there your body needs to continue to replenish and restore the body to homeostasis after you’ve finished training.”
Your overall intensity of training will be the main variable to maximise the EPOC response.
EPOC can last 24-72 hours post training.
How efficient you are at a particular exercise or sport is going to be another variable that dictates the level of EPOC.
If a competitive swimmer needs to loose fat it may be a smart to put them on a rowing machine considering they are not efficient at to that movement.
To loose fat you want to be as inefficient as possible because its going to take more energy to do the same amount of work.
Having more muscle mass will or utilizing more muscle in training will assist in maximizing EPOC.
Nothing set in stone.
4 Exercises x 5 Sets
1. Strength Movement (Back/Front Squat)
2. Unilateral / Accessory (Row)
3. Conditioning (Battle Ropes/Prowler)
4. Core (Paloff Press)
The key is duration.
The aim is for all 4 exercises in total last a total approximately 2min.
Though this will vary depending on the goal. If an individual wants to loose fat but doesn’t mind it taking a bit longer as strength is a priority as well than we may shorten the work duration with longer rest.
About 2min. 1:1 work/rest ratio for fat loss priority.
If building strength is a goal than up to 3min rest may be appropriate.
FYI you may loose the ability to maximize the EPOC response if you go over 3min rest.
Ascending: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10
Descending: 20, 15, 10, 5
Pyramid: 5, 10, 15, 10 5
Strength: 5×5 (Tempo)
Escalating Density Method
Pick 2 exercises. (Bench Press – Bench Pull)
Use 10RM for each exercise but do it at 5 reps.
No rest. (going from one exercise to another)
Nutrition & Supplements
James: 18th Nov 2016
Macronutrient: A type of food that provides energy. (CHO/PRO/FAT) ‘The building blocks of energy.’
Micronutrient: “A chemical element/substance (dieter nutrients) required in trace amounts for the normal growth and development of living organisms.” (Vitamins/Minerals)
CHO/PRO = 4 / FAT = 9 = cal per gram. ALCOHOL = 7
Alcohol Metabolism Oxidization
When your body absorbs alcohol it stops burning fat/glycogen as its main source of energy and begins to use alcohol. ALC is more of a fat burning suppressor rather than a fat storer. That’s why eating while under intoxication increases the likelihood of the energy absorbed through the food to be converted to adipose tissue rather than used.
1. Upon intake of ALC it gets converted into acetaldehyde which is extremely toxic by itself that can kill you in a couple of minutes if your body doesn’t quickly convert it to acetate.
2. Acetate is released by the liver and converted into acetyl-CoA.
3. A. Two things that can happen: Acetyl-CoA either converts to glycerol, glycogen or lipids and be stored for energy. (Only occurs in very small amounts of ingested alcohol)
B. Most ALC is used to generate ATP via the krebs cycle.
Alcohol & Performance
ACL has a diuretic effect that causes dehydration. In each gram of ALC consumed around 10mL of excess urine production is present. When ALC is oxidized it produced an elevation in NADH. NADH reduced the production of ATP therefore you will have an energy loss post ALC consumption.
ACL consumption 24 hours prior to exercise has been shown to reduce aerobic performance by around 11%. ALC has adverse effects on strength and power and can result in increased time to fatigue through high intensity exercise. There’s little evidence that supports negative effects in short very high intensity 1RM bout exercises.
It appears ALC effects us more on a nervous system level than a muscular level. A low to moderate intake of ALC prior to sports that require fine motor control and focus under pressure and anxiety has been shown to slightly improve performance.
5 Functions of Protein
Structure: of muscles, skin, hair and nails.
Hormone: regulation of growth hormone and insulin production et al.
Enzymes: Digestive enzymes, energy production enzymes and blood coagulation enzymes
Transport: Of proteins such as hemoglobin (a protein that transports oxygen throughout the body).
Immunoglobulins (Antibodies): Aids in immune system function by specifically recognizing and binding to particular antigens, such as bacteria or viruses and aiding in their destruction.
3 most important amino acids for muscle recovery and growth: Leucine, Isoleucine, and Valine (BCAA)
Leucine regulates the mTOR pathway. Note: If your consuming most of your protein sources from non-essential forms of protein your not going to up regulate mTOR to the same efficiency in order to spike protein synthesis and cell growth.
Leucine: Key Driver of Muscle Protein Synthesis
Depending on body size about 3g of leucine and 30g of protein per meal is ideal to up regulate the mTOR pathway.
2:1:1 has been the most studied ratio of Leucine:Isoluecine:Valine
9 Essential Amino Acids Humans Cannot Synthesize
BCAA: Leucine, Isoleucine, Valine.
Accounts for 35% of the total essential amino pool within the muscle. Play a key role in muscle growth and prevention of muscle breakdown. BCAA can be oxidized within the skeletal muscle and used for energy whereas the other’s below have to be broken down at the liver first.
Leucine found in milk, meats or supplements. Around 3-4g per meal to optimize muscle growth.
Other Essential Amino Acids: Methionine, Phenylalanine, Theronine, Tryptophan, Lysine, Histidine (which I’ve seen bee considered essential and non-essential)
6 Other Amino Acids: Arginine, Cystine, Glycine, Proline, Tyosine, Aspartic Acid, Serine, Glutamic Acid, Alanine, Glutamine
Many sports drinks and fruits contain fructose. When you uptake fructose it has to go to the liver to get converted to glucose for your body to utilize it. If your in an event that requires a fast source of CHO taking in fructose or a fructose based drink is not ideal. Looking for something that has just glucose, maltodextrin.
Dehydration during exercise impairs prolonged aerobic exercise, thermoregulation especially (during hot weather), slow gastric emptying and a reduce cognitive function.
Post training: Replace all lost fluids (weigh pre/post) + an extra 25-50%.
Pace fluid replacement to mitigate GI discomfort, bloating and indigestion.
5 Electroyles Lost During Sweat
Sodium, Sulfur, Potassium, Magnesium, Calcium
General Hydration Guidelines:
60-90min: 500-750mL per hour (depending on weight, conditions, intensity etc)
90min-120min+: 30-60g of CHO per hour (depending on intesnity).
Tour de France Riders: 30-90 grams per hour depending on point in the race.
Magnesium: Aids sleep and muscle recovery. A precursor to 300+ enzymes. About 50% of the US population is deficient in Mag.
Dosage: 300-400mg Brand: Magnesium Citrate Black Mores Muscle Mag
Vitamin D3: Taking D2 destroys D3’s effects. D3 is far more important to our health. Use D3 supplement with vitamin K2 to help up-regulate and absorb the D3. You can synthesize D3 from the sun however it depends on many variables, darker pigment skin contains more melanin which acts as a natural sunscreen making it harder to uptake D3. D3 get’s converted into a steroid hormone called calcitriol that is responsible for controlling inflammation, assisting immune function, brain function and enhancing gene expression. It plays a vital role in bone health through it’s synergistic effects with Calcium. If you don’t have adequate levels of Vitamin D your ability to uptake Calcium is reduced to about 15%, meaning you going to excrete about 85% of the Calcium you take up.
Dosage: 2000mg Brand: Ostelin Calcium-DK2 (have the purest form)
Omega 3: A polyunsaturated faty acid that is sourced from fatty fish such as Salmon.
Dosage: Experiment from 2-12g daily.
Omega 6 are more readily available and processed, however our current Western diet has our O6:O3 ratio at about 20:1 where is should be closer to 1:1. Omega’s exposed to heat and oxygen go rancid very easily. Look for Omega supplements that have been made under nitrogen flushing which ensures optimal stability and potency. Plays a huge role in reducing inflammation, reducing the chance of diabetes, eczema, obesity, cardiovascular disease etc and a huge role in brain function. Dosage: Poliquin sais they gave obese patients about 30g Omega’s per day and they cut weight very rapidly
Creatine: Stored in the skeletal muscle in the form of creatine phosphate (CP). Endogenous (origin) syntheses in the liver and pancreas from amino acids. We uptake about 1-2g per day through normal dietary intake of meats (fish specifically). CP has a role in the phosphagen system (ATP) for energy production aiding in high intensity performance. Supplementation has been shown to improve performance in repeated bouts of high intensity exercise separated by short recovery intervals.
Caffeine: Blood levels tend to peak 45-60min post ingestion. Caffeine has a stimulent effect on the brain and CNS. It increases alertness, decrease the perception of fatigue, also has metabolic effects including the mobilzation of fats from adipose tissue, increased fat oxidation and potnetially glycogen sparring. Decreasing RER (respiratory exchange ratio).
6mg per kg of bw has been previously advised though 1-3mg taken before and during has been shown to give the same effects as the 6mg dosage.
Beta-alanine: Amino acid that has a role in the synthesize of carnosine to help decrease fatigability. Carnosine is a dipeptide (peptide composed of two amino-acid residues) made up of L-Histidin and β-alanin stored in the brain and muscle cell. It is an antioxidant that has a role in buffering H+, therefore decreasing acidity levels produced with high intensity exercise. Meats, chicken and white fish contain dietary sources of carnosine and beta-alanine.
Beta-alanine is contained in a lot of pre-workouts giving that tingling pins and needles feeling. Dosage: 5-6g per day.
Informed Sport logo = Trusted
Psychology / Brain / Gut
Tiff: 11th Nov 2016
Personality / Psychology
All 4 are active and in a state of flux. Each individual will have a natural dominance to one side or another.
D: Goal oriented. Linear thinking. One way style of communicating. To the point.
E.G. Donald Trump. | Animal: Bull.
Keep in mind: Less is more. They may have a tendency to not care for you or your details. Get to the point – succinct.
I: Natural born salesmen.
E.G. Richard Brandon | Animal: Peacock
E.G. Steven Hawking | Animal: Owl (Engineers)
Keep in mind: Like to know how things works. They want to know the ‘why’.
Looking after everyone else first. (Mothers/teachers/nurses)
E.G. Mother Teresa | Animal: Dodo
Keep in mind: Good to get them into a group for a social aspect. Keep’s them accountable and creates ‘stakes’ of not disappointing and letting down others. More encosuraging and compassionate.
3 billion brain cells = 10,000 dendrites can be grown per brain cell = the possible connections of 3 billion cells growing all their dendrites = 10 to the power of 10 to the power of 10.
96% Unconscious / 4% Conscious (University of Sydney)
2 million pieces of information per second – 134 pieces gets through to the conscious into 7 (+/- 2) pieces
It takes 21 times to recall a piece of information to make it a ‘super highway’ to myelinate the dendrite. Using multiple sensory inputs at once aids in memory. (Sight, touch, emotion etc).
Reticular Activating System
The RAS processes all sensory information and distinguishes what’s needed and what’s not. Think of it as a filter.
It’s not an accident people who constantly affirm that they are not confident struggle with their self-esteem every day. Be very careful what you focus on because your RAS will find and show you things to prove that your negative self-talk is true. The more proof your RAS finds the stronger your belief about yourself becomes. The stronger your belief is – the more likely you are to tell yourself it. It becomes a repetitive cycle which can be constructive or self-destructive depending on your self-talk and beliefs.
Pay attention not only to your own self-talk, but to the people you train. Figure out the why and how behind the self talk to either break it down or continue to build it.
‘Away from’ motivation vs ‘Towards Motivation’
Set ‘towards’ goals instead.
The unconscious mind cannot process negatives.
“The theory is (and remember it is only a theory) that we are not to say “don’t” or “will not” or “no longer” or any other negative form of suggestion when we are talking to clients with the intent of helping them make positive changes in their lives. This, we are told, is because the subconscious mind does not hear the negative and therefore any negative suggestion will be heard in the positive; it will be heard, by the client’s subconscious mind, as the therapist giving the client permission to carry on doing whatever they said they wanted to change!” [Source]
This is away from motivation.
Versions of “I don’t want to be fat”, “I don’t want to be thin”, “I hate being confident” potentially causes the RAS to limit the brain to see anything but the very thing you don’t want to happen.
Your motivation will generally be higher instead with ‘towards goals’.
Made up of 3 endocrine glands: (Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis)
“Our central stress response system.”
Regulates: stress, sexuality, mood, behaviour, digestion and the immune system.
Sympathetic NS: Epinephrine (adrenalin), Noradrenaline, Cortisol.
Sex Hormones: Testosterone, Estrogen, Progesterone.
Nutrition and Physical Degeneration – Weston Price
Found the effects os sugar and processed foods on ancient tribes. Performed studies in the early 1900s before the industrial revolution we were began to get an abundance of processed food. He came back 2 generations later studying the grandparents and grandchildren in comparison observing their skeletal and muscular changes. based on the introduction of sugar in the proceeding generations the grandparents had perfectly symmetrical faces, great skin, lean bodies, pallet size, no teeth crowding or cavities. Whereas in the grandchildren there was a misalignment in their face, crowding of the teeth, bad skin, cavities etc.
Gluten has been shown to be inflammatory in some capacity to the majority of people. Though it is a spectrum. We all will respond differently.
“Studies have shown that gluten consumption’s related to every mental health disorder form depression, anxiety all the way up to schizophrenia”
A big factor to this is because the agriculture industry has changed the way it processes gluten over the last 100 years.
“In his New York Times bestseller, Wheat Belly, cardiologist William Davies claimed that wheat is the primary driver of obesity, heart disease and a host of other metabolic and digestive problems. His controversial claim is based largely on his clinical experience, the story of which is truly remarkable: since he started advising his cardiac patients to cut all forms of wheat and wheat products from their diets, he has not had a single patient suffer a heart attack!
Critics of Davis’ anti-wheat stance, suggest that any benefits from a wheat-free diet are simply those associated with a low-carb diet, and that outside coeliac disease, wheat itself is no more problematic than any other carbohydrate. Controversially, Davies claims that wheat has been altered through centuries of selective breeding, such that modern wheat varieties are now effectively ‘toxic’ to humans. This has brought ridicule from many scientists as conventional plant breeding is assumed to be entirely safe, and critics point out that selective breeding has been going on since the dawn of agriculture.
A study published this month in the British Journal of Nutrition has put Davis’ theory to the test, by giving 20 sufferers of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) either modern wheat products (bread, pasta, biscuits and crackers etc) or identical products made from an ancient variety. The results were clear-cut: whilst on the modern wheat diet no improvement in symptoms occurred, but participants on the ancient-wheat diet experienced a very significant decrease in symptoms, including less abdominal pain, distension, bloating, tiredness and improved quality of life. Also, at the end of the ancient wheat diet, but not the modern wheat diet, multiple markers of inflammation were reduced, including vascular endothelial growth factor – implicated in cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and diabetic retinopathy.”[Source]
Plants are in essence a living being that breaths through photosynthesis, eats from the soil. Just like animals a plant will naturally want to reproduce and continue the growth of its species. Seeds and nuts are equivalent to the bi-products of a plants ‘reproductive system’. A phytic acid layer will develop around these nuts/seeds (assuming as a form of protection from predators). Our bodies cannot break down phytic acid. Phytic acid preferentially binds iron, magnesium and calcium in the gut consequently making them unavailable to absorb into our body. When we consume foods with phytic acid, our ability to absorb minerals is impaired and mineral deficiencies and bone loss may result in the long term.
“Activated nuts have been soaked in water and salt for a period of time (8 hours), which starts off the germination or sprouting process, then dehydrated at a low temperature such as in an oven (65*C – 100*C degrees) or in the warm sun. Soaking increases the nutrient value of the nuts along with breaking down the problematic compounds that help enhance their digestibility.”
If you want to determine how someone feels accurately after eating something (maybe to detect a sensitivity) be cognizant that everyone processes food in their GI tract at different speeds. A great way to find it exactly how long someone takes to digest food is to get someone to eat corn and wait to see it in their egesta.
If you want to give someone a food journal to determine their food stressors get them to write down what they’re eating but also how they’re feeling incrementally at 1 hour / 2 hour / 3 hour etc mark.
There’s more bacteria in the large intestine than you have cells in your body which weights about 3kg. The same bacteria that makes the majority of your serotonin. A reason why a functional medicine practitioner will look at the gut closely to treat depression.
There’s more nerves that go from the gut to the brain, than the brain to the gut. What that tells us is the gut has a higher potential to control the brains functions than the brain has over the gut.
“When we produce gas it means our bacteria are happy. When are bacteria eat they produce gas. A little bit of gas is normal”.
Puts bacteria back in. Needs to be kept in the fridge so the bacteria don’t die.
Actual food for the bacteria. Anything that is fermented for example, even cabbage.
“A non-digestible food ingredient that promotes the growth of beneficial microorganisms in the intestines.”
Egesta AKA Poop
One of the best indicators to how healthy you are.
6 inches per day total minimum.
Ideal = Fairly smooth not too many cracks on the surface.
If your straining to get it out its not soft enough = need more water.
Runny = too can be to much water or leaky gut syndrome.
Greenish Tinge = Your bodies not reabsorbing the bile. Can be a sign of IBS. Too much stress. Food intolerance. Liver dysfunction not absorbing properly.
“Bile has two important functions: It assists in the digestion and absorption of fats, and it is responsible for the elimination of certain waste products from the body, particularly hemoglobin from destroyed red blood cells and excess cholesterol.”
Pellets = ‘Rabbit poops’ = Not enough water
Hard to push out and oddly shaped = too much protein
Sinks = Not enough fat
Floats at the top = Too much fat
Consume food and it go’s right through you within 5-10min = Could be they’re still processing from the meal before and trying to clear the GI tract so they can process new food OR they could have a quick GI tract OR some type of issue like stress. If you’re too stressed then your going to be absorbing almost nothing. Food will go right through you essentially.
Melbourne water contains 250 different chemicals.
Fluoride is something they add supposedly for teeth health. http://fluoridealert.org/
They initially started putting fluoride in water in WW2 because people’s hygiene became potentially unsafe and they weren’t brushing their teeth. So they thought putting it in the water would help. But you actually don’t need it for your teeth. Recently fluoride has been confirmed as a neurotoxin. Over time Fluoride calcifies and mineralises your pineal gland (regulates cycles/hormones).
Speaking of, “PMS for a woman is not normal. Woman shouldn’t have that big of a fluctuation in their hormones that they become a psycho-bitch for a week. Period pain for a woman is a sign of hormonal imbalance. Its so common that we assume its normal and healthy.”
Best waters brands = Evian or San Pellegrino
Try not drink hot liquids from styrofoam cups and be wary of plastic lids because the coffee or tea is usually so hot it strips the chemicals and estrogens from the lid into the liquid as you consume it.
Child Health / Vaccines
“A big reason vaccines have become such a large issue within the last 20 years is because were taking in so many heavy metals. They use aluminum in the vaccine to keep the compounds together and emulsify it. The average mother is then taking in an abundance of chemicals such as aluminum from deodorants, shampoo’s, makeup, maybe even a lot of fish that has mercury plus all this fluoride from the water. Now her blood as a high level of heavy metals which she passes onto the baby. Now the new born baby has a elevated level of neurotoxins which we then give the ‘bulk 4in1 type-vaccine’ for convenience and cost effectiveness which naturally has more aluminum in it. It’s usually after then when a baby may get a disorder like autism – after that multi-vaccine.”
Epinephrine/Norepinephrine = increases heart rate + body temp + blood flow + vasodilation
Cortisol = Helps suppress immune system in the short term for efficient sympathatic NS use. In the long term it can causes inflammation, illness and excess adipose tissue store.
Negative Feedback Loop
“Stress Stimuli – Causes hypothalamus activation – turns on pituitary gland – turns on adrenal gland – produce hormones such as epinephrine/norepinephrine which are the only two hormones here that have a negative feedback loop. Cortisol doesn’t. Meaning when epinephrine/norepinephrine get to a certain concentration in the body the negative feedback loop turns off the hypothalamus/pituitary gland/adrenals. Cortisol doesn’t have an off switch. If the body is constantly producing cortisol our sex hormones: testosterone, estrogen, progesterone are adversely affected.
3 Hormones That Can Shut Off Cortisol
Serotonin (90% comes from the gut), Dopamine (multiple areas of the brain), Oxycontin (hypothalamus).
We produce dopamine when we do lighter physical activities/workouts. Working at a high % of one’s HR produces more testosterone/GH.
Practical application: We must gauge the stress levels of the people we work with to respond smartly. If someones in a high stress job and they’ve just had a shit day even though they may want to smash themselves as their outlet, sometimes they need to not workout at all and go for a walk, or at least not as intensely as usual in order to manage the physical stress and leverage dopamine secretion.
Tom: 21st Oct 16′
2-12 Weeks Early Stage Rehab Post Surgery
Goal 1.: To reduce inflammation/swelling
Goal 2: Regain full knee extension/flexsion
Goal 4: Balance/proprioception/movement control
Goal 5: Normalize gait
0-6 Weeks Early Stage
Usually be some form of partial to full weight bearing / swelling / decreased ROM / stiffness
Gait education of the crutches
Avoid: Lunges / squats
Early – Middle Stage
Should have full ROM by 12 weeks with unrestricted walking.
1. RDL 3×8
2. High Box Squat / Swiss Ball Squat 3×6 (focus on body control)
3A. Small Step Up 3×10
3B. Straight Leg Raise 3×15
4A. DL Bridge 3×10
4B. Range of movement exercise
Simply walking is a great exercise to build back strength.
High Box Sqauat / Small Box Step Up / Single Leg Balance / Straight Leg Raises / Trap Bar DL / Hamstring work to aid strength from graft
Straight Leg Raise:
Late Stage 6-12 weeks+
Eccentric hamstring exercises / leg curls etc to rehab the hamstring graft
Recommended to avoid lunges which places excessive sheering force on the ligament
Full ROM / Returning to full strength and power with unrestricted compound lifts
AC Tear Signs
Pain to touch on AC
Bear hug position (horizontal flexion)
Improving thoracic extension
Pain releif strategy and prevent frozen shoulder
Strengthen rotator cuff: Isometrics are very good for pain relief
E.G. 30 degrees abduction pushing against the wall / external rotation pushing against the wall
Foam roller wall crawl (great for those who have any impingement issues or movement with their scapula)
Releasing anterior musculature + posterior cuff
Avoid end ROM horizontal flexsion/extension + avoid compression
# = Fracture
P (with a circle around) = Pain
Hx = History
Tx = Treatment
Mx = Management
Sx = Subjective
Obx = Objective
Medx = Medication
S/S = Signs & Symptoms
L) = Left | R) = Right
Gait & Posture
Tiff: 16th Sep 16′
Subjective ‘Qualitative’ Data
Some you visually see or feel.
Something they feel subjectively.
Types Of Pain For Reference: QRST
What type of pain do they have?
Sharp, dull, pounding, throbbing, achy, burning, boring.
Does the pain stay still or does it move?
Rate pain on scale of 1-10. Remember pain context is subjective.
Is the pain always there, or does it come and go?
Certain point of day?
Pain wake you up at night? (E.G. Arm pain waking you up at night can be associated with a tumor).
Objective ‘Quantitative’ Data
5 Tests: ROM / Strength / Posture / Gait / Pelvic Alignment
Active / Passive
Over Pressure: (Never do over pressure on the spine, neck or dislocations)
End Feels: ‘The feel at the very end of the ROM’
Springy (joint capsule springs back)
Bony/hard (like hitting a wall)
Leathery (could keep going but feel’s like it get’s stuck – one you don’t want to feel)
Soft (elbow/knee flexion forearm onto bicep)
Main hip stabilizers when walking/running: Glute medius, TFL which both insert into the ITB.
If glute medius and TFL aren’t strong enough to stabilize us during walking, running, sprinting then our body compensates by finding stability in other areas. This can cause the IT band to get tight. Although “when we foam roll our IT band were not trying to ‘loosen the IT’ band were attempting to rid the adhesion’s between IT band and the tissue underneath to allow the IT band to move more freely.”
People who just roll their IT band but don’t strengthen their glutes are essentially going through all that discomfort for nothing because the adhesion’s will glue themselves back together again once you start walking since you haven’t addressed the muscular imbalance/compensation by strengthened the glutes.
Walking = 1-1.5x BW
Running = Up to x7 BW
Pronation v Supination
Pronation: Walking on inside edge of foot. (People with a flat arch are more prone to pronating)
Supination: Walking on outside edge of foot (People who have more high/rigid arches are prone to supinating)
Every muscle in our body has a contract/relax phase except for the adductor group which always has at least one of muscles contracting when we’re walking.
Gait Cycle: Walking
One foot is always in contact with the ground during walking.
Heel Strike: in the middle of your calcaneus – slight external rotation of the foot coming from the hip about 15 degrees – rolling into slight supination – rolling into prontion
Gait Cycle: Running
Going to be a forefoot strike further underneath your body.
What has an inferior pull on the front anterior of the pelvis: Hip Flexors: Rec Fem + Iliopsoas
What has a superior pull on the posterior side of the pelvis: Erector Spinae
What has a inferior pull on the posterior side of the pelvis: Hamstring complex
Right ASIS and PSIS higher = an ‘upshift’. See chirotherapy or osteo
Caused: Leg length discrepancy (structural or functional) / trauma from fall / standing in one place putting disproportionate pressure in one leg.
Right ASIS higher and right PSIS is lower = posterior tilt = tight hamstrings/rectus abdominus and weak hip flexors/erector spinae
Right ASIS lower and right PSIS is higher = anterior tilt = tight hip flexors/erector spinae and weak hamstrings/rectus abdominus
APT put’s hamstrings in a ‘stretched state’.
How do you know if its right or left ASIS/PSIS rotation/tilt?
Stand behind someone feeling their PSIS, get them to bend forward to touch their toes – whichever PSIS moves first is the affected side.
Paul Chek Totem Pole
“Our body will put us into alignment based on our survival needs”
Limbic is the only one that can move places on this list. It can move to no.1 or no.9.
Tiff: 28th Aug 16′
Define: “A disturbance in brain function caused by direct or indirect force to the head”
You do not need to hit your head to get a concussion.
It can take up to 72 hours for concussion to symptoms to show. A suspected case needs to be monitored for 72 hours. Even one symptom as simple as a headache will be classed as a concussion post trauma.
Taking a quality DHA and fish oil supplement ASAP after the hit is very beneficial to help the brain recover post concussion.
Perform Glasgow Coma / SCAT Test:
Signifies there is potential damage to the brain stem.
Post Concussion Return To Play Protocol
Each day has to be 24 hours apart.
Day 0: Complete rest mental and physical. Anything that stimulates blood flow to the brain is cut out.
Including weight training, physical activity, mental activity, reading, video games, studying, learning.
Day 1: 24 Hours of no symptoms.
(E.G. Last symptom was Mon 10AM than day 1 finishes Tues 10AM)
Day 2: (Wed 10AM)
10-15min light aerobic @ 50%.
No/Low impact: biking or swimming. Avoid running to avoid impact on brain.
Day 3: (Thu 10AM)
15-20min @ 70% RPE
Day 4: (Fri 10AM)
Weight training and/or non-contact drills.
Day 5: (Sat 10AM)
Day 6: (Sun 10AM)
Full return to play
If at any day any symptom returns, (even -as little as a headache) you go back to day 0 to complete the full 7 day protocol.
Basic Protocol For Any Injury / Rehab
1. Reduce / Eliminate Pain & Swelling
(as long as swelling is present there is a higher risk of tissue degradation / tissue death)
2. Restore ROM
3. Restore Strength
4. Restore Proprioception & Balance
5. Sports Specific Movements
If you have gone 3 sessions without a positive change a reassessment needs to be evaluated.
Sprains & Strains
Sprain: Ligament (Bone – Bone)
Strain: Muscle (Muscle – Tendon)
Grade 1: Overstretch (no fibers tear)
Grade 2: Partial Tear
(Most painful because you’re partiality tearing blood vessels and nerves)
Grade 3: Full Tear
(A full tear of the nerves associated with the tissue may be painful initially, but after that there’s nothing to conduct that pain hence the reason the pain generally subsides)
Note: Partial and full tear: Splint them in a position that is advantageous to receive the least muscle damage.
E.G. A ruptured achilles: splint them in full plantar flexion because ‘there’s less scar tissue that has to bridge the gap’
“Shoulder impingement, also called subacromial impingement, is a clinical syndrome which occurs when the tendons of the rotator cuff muscles become irritated and inflamed as they pass through the subacromial space, the passage beneath the acromion. This can result in pain, weakness and loss of movement at the shoulder.”
Empty Can Test
A method to differentiate between supraspinatus and long head bicep is the empty can test.
The first 30 degrees of ABduction is 100% supraspinatus so if they’re weak in that first 30% it’s most likely a supraspinatus pathology.
Then there is the scaption plane which is 45 degrees in from ABduction. If they have pain in that ROM then it is another indicator of a supraspinatus injury.
Generally speaking, programming for a shoulder impingement needs to address a person’s posture including strengthening lower/middle traps and rhomboids being the priority. (E.G. Rowing/pulling movements).
Dislocation: Bone fully pops out
Subluxation: Partial dislocation that usually relocates itself.
Rehab: 6 Muscles To Strengthen
Supra / Deltoid / All 4 Rotator Cuffs / Serratus Anterior
Subscapularis / Supraspinatus / Infraspinatus / Teres Minor
Lateral Epicondylitis / Tennis Elbow
What muscle group attaches to the lateral epicondyl of the humerus? = Forearm extensors which are either weak or tight.
If you want to determine whether its tightness or weakness:
Rehab: Wrist curls / Flicking fingers /
Medial Epicondylitis / Golfers Elbow
Effected area = Forearm flexors (Similar rehab strategy)
Not some common in North America but quite common in Australia due to our ‘running culture’.
An instability through the pelvis.
“Damage and inflammation to the pelvis at the site where the two pubic bones join”
The adductors pull down on the pubis and the abdominals pull up from the pubis.
Patellofemoral Syndrome (PFS)
Generalized knee pain (especially on weight bearing).
Causes: Happens a lot during adolescence: Growth spurt / weak glutes /
Anatomy Of The Patella (MCL / ACL / PCL / LCL)
MCL Stops a knee valgus lateral force
LCL: Stops a verus force
ACL: Stops anterior translation of the tibia on the femur OR posterior translation of the femur on the tibia.
(Happens often during cutting change of direction)
Note: One part of the ACL is taut in every degree of extension or flexion
Inflammation of the tendon.
GPS & Data Tracking
Jay: 2nd Dec 16′
Contains satellite and acceslerometer component.
Measurement: Hz = sampling of frequency per sec which influences validity/accuracy. (Most in 10Hz)
E.G. Old TV’s asking for 50/60hz. The higher the better because the more samples per second.
Always Ask: What’s the purpose of analyzing and collecting the data and how can you convert it into tangible application?
Then how do you communicate what you know to the players and coaching staff in a manner that is simplistic and engaging?
Using the bell curve to give players a % of how many players they’re better or worse then in a specific skill or test:
E.G. Elite: 95 Percentile
Breaking Down The Data
HIRE can be broken down into:
Absolute Measure: ‘How many high intensity running efforts did you complete today?’ ‘140 Okay, but how long did you spend on the ground?’ 70min
Relative Measure: Therefore they do 2 high intensity running efforts per min.
HIR% = High Intensity Running %
HIR = High Intensity Runnng
HIRE = High Intensity Running Efforts
Operational Output v Maximal Output
Op Output: What you do on the sporting field.
E.G. Your operational speed is usually quite a bit lower than maximal speed output because the variables of your sport.
Using maximal speed from a GPS of a running test can cause inaccuracy when using the data to load manage and program in-season because the data is not taken from the game, but something outside of it.
The mistake people make:
‘Okay, this is his maximal speed because that’s what the GPS tells me. Therefore 50% of his max speed is 4m per second therefore when I do all my running loads I know 4m per sec is 50% of what he can achieve. Therefore when we write our conditioning program I can aim for 4m per sec.’
The mistake being his operational output is highly likely to be lower.
MAS (Maximal Aerobic Speed)
Anything above 100% of MAS is anaerobic.
Taking Credit & Responsibility
“Never forget, when a team wins its because of tactics, when a team losses, its because of lack of fitness. No matter what you do when a team plays well, it’s always good tactics, when they loose, it’s probably because they’re not fit and strong enough. If you perform long enough without taking recognition, recognition will come. If you’re not willing to take the hit for them not being physically prepared don’t take credit for their sucess once it comes. You either take both, or leave both. ” – Jay Ellis
Performing Under Fatigue / 4th Quarter
Jay – 9.12.16 (Last class)
Some theorize that because you have to perform fast and powerful movements in the 4th quarter when you’re fatigued that you should therefore train in a fatigued state to prepare for that.
How would you justify it?
“Simply. The law of specificity – a basic fitness principle.”
How would you justify against it?
Max Output (MO) v Operational Output (OO)
Late in a game roughly what % of your max can you contribute to sport? 75-80% approximately.
So if your max speed is 9 m/s, and your OO when your fatigued is 6 m/s. If I keep on training my body to have an OO of 6 (66% of max) when I’m fatigued what’s the body going to get adapted to? That state.
Whereas if I raise my MO to 11 for example, what’s 66% of the OO now = 7.2m/s. Therfore later in the game my OO is higher, so I have a greater reserve.
The most practical application of this is someone who has a DL of 250kg. If they were to do 10 rep drop set right after what rough numbers would they do the drop set at? Approximately 66% at about 165kg. In comparison, if my max DL is 200kg and I do a drop set of 10 when I’m fatigued what’s going to be my output for my 10 reps? About 132kg. Point being, if your MO is higher, you’ve got a greater reserve which you can tap into later in the game.
On the topic of conditioning, people talk about how high intensity running is so important in field sports to win. So they all they do is high intensity running. To prepare to run a marathon, you don’t just run marathon’s. To prepare for a 1RM you don’t always just do sets of 1. There’s more to it than that. Running analogy: You’re ability to produce high intensity running is done by two things – you’re ability to recover between efforts (an aerobic trait) and your ability to produce max speed (neural trait). So if you’re not fast – your ability to work at a high a high intensity is compromised.
‘In the last quarter when teams a tired they need to be powerful and fast – YES.’
So what they do is get athletes tired and then perform compound complex movements like snatches.
‘Why are you doing that?’ ‘Because when they’re tired they need to be able to powerful’
‘Yes, but that’s not going to enhance your maximal power production. There’s no way you can be significantly fatigued and enhance your power because to enhance your power you need to be metabolically fresh.’
‘What if you put them on a proper strength and power program and you push their maximal speed from 9-9.5. What’s going to happen to operational output if you make the maximal output higher? It increases. Then your operational output is exactly what your max output used to. It increases linearly’
As opposed to spending all your time increasing operational output where max output won’t chance because you’re not training at a high intensity under optimal neural and metabolic conditions.
Performing Under Fatigue #2
“We often get asked about W:R ratios for speed and power.
No absolute answer on this, but the simplest is the best.
Why? Because your goal isn’t to impose a stimulus that will fatigue your athlete. It’s to impose a stimulus that provides a maximal effort to recruit HTMU (high threshold motor units).
Fatigue (both metabolic and neural) is detrimental to this process and because each athlete has different recovery rates based on training age, don’t try and over complicate it with w:r ratios from literature or university notes.
– are they puffing? Wait longer
– are they fresh and ready to go? Have at it
Your w:r ratio needs to relate back to and facilitate your goal for the session. Keep it simple.
* don’t buy into the fallacy that people often use and hide the behind the principle of specificity.
YES you do need to produce power and speed under fatigue during games. However training is the time to enhance the attribute maximally meaning your operational/gameday output also increases. Just because you need to produce speed and power under fatigue it doesn’t mean it is optimized by training under it.” – Jay Ellis
External (focusing on something outside their body) vs Internal Cues
“Screw feet into the ground” / “Claw the track with your shoe as quickly as possibly as you accelerate” = External
“Drive leg forward as powerfully as possible” = Internal
Job Experience Tip
What’s the biggest program at WSSC? : Juniors
If you can tell them how to get better and what they need to get to high level you could write strength or conditioning programs and earn an extra $300 p/w / $80 p/w for local clubs/semi elite clubs/rep clubs by…
Ask them if they have a fitness coach? Answer: ‘No, usually a 60 year old guy just blows a whistle and tells them to run’
‘How about you pay me $50 a session and I can come and run it for you. I’ve got x and y education, done an internship at x and y, I’ve learnt what needs to be done to improve athlete performance would you pay me to write and implement a running/strength program?’
Anatomy / Physiology Resources:
Metabolic Pathway Interplay
Phospho Creatine Recovery Rates
5 Area’s to maximal neuromuscular power development