HSE102 – Functional Human Anatomy

Topic 1. Introduction to Functional Human Anatomy

Week #1

Basic Functional Anatomy

Planes of Reference

Midsaggital (saggital) Plane:

Separating the body into left and right.

Think about how we move in yoga during sun salutations – very sagital plane dominent.

Coronal/Frontal Plane

Where abduction and adduction occur.

Think ‘grabbing a corona’ to the left and right

Transverse Plane

Separates top and bottom


Directional Terms

E.G. The dorsal part of the hand is the back (darker side) because we must always consider that we’re referring to the body in the classic ‘anatomical’ position.

Ipsilateral: Same side of the body

E.G. The right arm is ipsilateral to the right leg, whereas the left arm is contralateral to the right leg.

Contralateral: Opposite side of the body

Practical implication: This becomes important when we discuss rotation of the trunk/neck, e.g. our external obliques does contralateral rotation  which mean’s the right external oblique is gonna rotate the body to the left.

Internal & External

Relative distance of a structure from the center of an organ.

Proximal & Distal Clarification

Proximal and distal mean’s ‘relative to something that’s attached’.

E.G. The knee is proximal to the foot because the knee is closer to the original attachment point (the hip) than what the foot is.

E.G.2 The foot is distal to the knee because it’s further away from the attachment point.

Terms Related to Movement

Body Cavities

Ventral (anterior) Body Cavities



Dorsal (posterior) Body Cavities



Organisation of Skeletal Muscle Fibers

Parallel Muscles: The fibers are running in the same direction (bicep)

Convergent Muscles: A wide base that converges on a tendon like a fan (pec major)

Pennate Muscles (contain more muscle fibers): Come in on an angle to a tendon.

Unipenate: coming in from ONE direction

Bipennate: Fibers coming in from TWO directions

Multipennate: Fibers coming in from multiple directions

Circular Muscles

Origins & Insertions

Origin: Is located at the fixed end of a muscle / It’s proximal and less moveable

Insertion: The movable end / It’s distal (further away from the attachment point) and most moveable

General Rule: The insertion moves towards the origin.

Muscle Contractions

Isometric: Muscle contracts/under tension while the limb’s don’t move/the join angle doesn’t change

Concentric: Muscle’s shorten under tension as the join angle usually get’s smaller

Eccentric: Muscle lengthens under tension (gravity or external load) as the joint angle usually get’s larger

Names of Skeletal Muscle

Fascicle Organisation:

Rectus = ‘straight’ e.g. rectus abdominis and rectus femoris muscle fibers run straight

Transverse = ‘running across the body’ e.g. transverse abdominis

Oblique = ‘running on an angle’ e.g. external oblique


Temporalis = ‘come’s off the temporal bone’ (side of the head)

Spinalis = ‘come’s off the spine’

Adominus = ‘belly region’

Relative position:

Superficialis & externus = superficial)

Profundus & internus = deep

Structure: Number of heads of origin, e.g. ‘bicep femoris’ has 2 heads which we can tell by the ‘bi’ portion, e.g. ‘tricep femoris’ has 3 heads which we can tell by the ‘tri’.

The name of the muscle can often reveal it’s join action. E.G. Flexor Digitorum will flex the fingers.


Longus (long)

Magnus (big)

Major (bigger)

Maximus (biggest)

Minor (small)

Minimus (smallest)


Trapezius (trapezoid)

Deltoid (triangle)

Teres (long & round)

Topic 2. Bones Of The Axial Skeleton

Functions of the Skeletal System

Support (framework of the body)

Protection/Body Cavities


Storage (Minerals)

Blood Cell Formation (RBC)

Classifications of Bones

Long Bones: Humerus, femur, radius and ulna

Short Bones: Carpals/tarsal

Flat Bones: Cranium, sternum

Irregular Bones: Vertebrae

Sesamoid (formed within a tendon): Patella

Sutural: Cranium

Bony Landmarks

Articulating Surfaces:

Where a bone meet’s another bone.

Condyle: large round knob

Facet: flat articular surface

Head: prominent round head of a bone

Openings in a bone:

Foramen (a hole or opening in a bone)


Fossa: flat shallow surface (a depression in a bone where muscle often sits in)

Non-Articulating Surface:

Bony projections where muscles or ligaments attaches.

Epicondyle: projection adjacent to a condyle

Ramus: flat angular section of a bone

Trochanter: massive bony process found on the femur

Tubercle: small round bony process

Tuberosity: large, roughened process

The Axial Skeleton

Transmites the weight of our upper body into our pelvis and lower limbs.

Axial Components:

Forms the vertical axis of the body

Consists of 80 bones

Adjusts the positions of the head, neck & trunk

Performs respiratory motions

Stabilizers & positions the appendicular skeleton

Cranial Bones

Parietal x 2 (left and right) –Temporal x 2 –Frontal x1 (means there’s only one) –Occipital x 1 –Sphenoid x 1 –Ethmoid x 1

Parietal Bone

Lateral wall and roof of skull

Articulates (joins) with frontal, occipital, temporal & sphenoid bones

Should be able to identify important landmarks like the temporal line which is where the temporalis origin is which helps the jaw open and close.

Temporal Bone

Inferior lateral aspect of skull

Articulates with mandible, zygomatic, sphenoid, parietal & occipital bones

Important markings:

Zygomatic process (which is a projection towards the zygomatic bone)

Mandibular fossa (where the head of the mandible sits)

External auditory meatus (allows sound to travel through)

Styloid process (important muscles that support the larynx and the tongue insert off that)

Mastoid process (where the sternocleidomastoid connects)

Frontal Bone

Forehead and roof of orbits (eye sockets)

Articulates with parietal, sphenoid, ethmoid, nasal, lacrimal, zygomatic, and maxillary bones

Occipital Bone

Posterior aspect & base of skull

Articulates with parietal, temporal, sphenoid and atlas bones

Important markings:

External occipital protuberance

Foramen (hole/opening) magnum (large) where the spinal cord passes through

Occipital condyles (articulating surface) which meet’s with C1

Cranial Bones

Sphenoid Bone:

Keystone of skull

Forms part of base of skull

It unites the cranial bone to the facial bones and articulates with nearly every other bone in your skull

It’s also really important because it has an optic canal where the optic nerve runs through that transmits info from eye to the brain

Ethmoid Bone:

Most deeply situated bone of skull

Forms bony area between nasal cavity and orbits

Articulates with sphenoid and frontal bones

“The olfactory nerve has a close anatomical relationship with the ethmoid bone. Its numerous nerve fibres pass through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone to innervate the nasal cavity with the sense of smell.”

Facial Bones

Don’t need to know any landmarks just need to know if their paired or singular.

Nasal x 2 –Maxillae x 2 –Zygomatic (cheek bone) x 2 –Lacrimal x 2 –Palatine x 2 (back of the roof of the mouth) Vomer x 1 –Mandible x 1



Suspended from the temporal bones by ligaments & muscles and doesn’t articulate with any other bone.

Supports the tongue

Attachment site for infrahyoid & suprahyoid musculature

The Vertebral Column

C7 / T12 / L5 / S5 (5 fused vertebrae) / C4 (1-4 fused depending on the person)

Spinal Curves:

Primary & Secondary

Increase strength, help maintain balance in an upright position, absorb shock, protect vertebrae from fracture

Babies develop their spine shape and concave curves as they start crawling and gain the ability to support their head

Characteristics of a Typical Vertebrae

The spinous process is the projection ‘bumpy part’ you feel running your hand down a spine. Many ligaments and muscles attach from the spinous processes.

Where the superior articular facet connects with the inferior articular process is where movement of the spine orginates.

The spinal nerves pass through the interveterbral foramen. Nerve impingement from sciatica pain usually occur within the interveterbral foramen.

A disc actually doesn’t “slip”, instead you get a protrusion of a disc into where the spinal nerves are sitting which can “pinch” the nerve.

There are 2 vertebrae that are a-typical: C1 (atlas) & C2 (axis)

C1 doesn’t have a body or a spinous process.

C2 has a feature called a ‘dens’ which gives a pivot point for C1 to rotate around which is why it’s called axis – this is what helps the head rotate.

How would you distinguish the difference between a cervical, lumbar and thoracic vertebrae?

Cervical vertabrae have holes (foremens) in their transverse process which you don’t find in other areas.

Lumbar are easier to distinguish because they are the largest, typically their spinous process is projecting posterialy straight out the back of the vertabrae.

Whereas the thoracic vertebrae have spinous processes that project downwards.

The sacrum meets the pelvis at the sacroiliac joint where the majority of the weight is transferred from the upper body to lower body.

Bony Thorax

The ribs and sternum. Role is to protect vital organs.




Xiphiod process

24 ribs in total: True ribs (first 7) which all have there own cartilage that connects to the sternum

False ribs (8-10) all join 7’s costal cartilage – that’ why their called false ribs, because they don’t have their own seperate costal cartlige.

Floating ribs (11-12) they are still classified as false ribs, but they don’t have any bony attachments anteriorly.

Topic 3. Muscles Moving the Axial Skeleton (Neck & Trunk)

Week #2

Prac exam: You will be asked to identify things like lateral flexsion of the neck and trunk. Make sure you don’t just state what movement it is but what direction – whether it’s moving to the left or right.

Muscle of the Neck

Anterior Neck

Sternocleidomastoid (SCM)

Originates from the manubrium/medial clavicle inserting to the mastoid process.

Flexion of cervical spine

Contralateral (opposite side of the body) rotation. If I’m rotating to the left the right SCM is on.

Ipsilateral (same side) lateral  flexion. So as you bring your neck down to your ear on the right side it’s the right SCM that activates.

Posterior Neck

Splenius Muscles (cervicis, capitis)

Cervicis – originates from spinous process of T3-T6 inserting at transverse process of C1-C3

Capitis – originates from spinous process C7, T1-T4 inserting at mastoid process and occipital bone

Don’t need to know specific origin and insertion but know where the muscles are.

Cervical extension

Ipsilateral rotation & lateral flexion

Anterolateral Abdominal Wall

Muscle of the Trunk

Structure: Bilaterally paired muscles in the anterolateral abdominal wall

3 flat muscles

External oblique

Internal oblique

Transverse abdominis (TVA)

1 vertical muscles

Rectus Abdominis

External Oblique

Most superficial of the three lateral muscles

Originates from the ribs and inserts at the pelvis & abdominal aponeurosisto the lineaalba (connective tissue that is often torn during child birth)

Compresses (flexsion) of the abdomen.

Exception to the rule where the origin actually moves towards the insertion instead of the usual other way around.

Laterally flexes the vertebral column

Contralateral rotator of the trunk

Internal Oblique

Middle layer of the three lateral abdominal muscles

Posterior fibres pass from the anterior trunk to the lumbar spine

Compresses the abdomen & stabilises the spine

Ipsilateral rotator of the trunk

Transverse Abdominus

Deepest of the three lateral abdominal muscles

Passes from the anterior trunk to the lumbar spine

Compresses the abdomen & stabilises the spine

TVA becomes active prior to limb movement

Co-contract with Multifidis

Rectus Abdominis(RA)

Originates from the pelvis and inserts to the ribs & sternum

RA & lateral fibers of the EO prime movers of trunk flexion (predominantly sagittal plane movements)


Better set up for rapid ballistic movements

Posterior Trunk Muscles

Quadratus Lumborum

Posterior abdominal wall

Forms an important part of the corset

Originates from the iliac crest of the pelvis and inserts to the 12th rib & lumbar (L1-L4) vertebrae

Actions include ipsilateral lateral flexion and extension of the lumbar spine

Erector Spinae muscles

3 muscles together: iliocostalis, longissimus & spinalis muscles

Originate from iliac crest & sacrum to insertion points up to C2

Main action is trunk and neck extension because the fibers run vertical

Lumbar Multifidis

Covers a small number of spinal segments

Helps to stiffen and stabilise the spine prior to limb movement

Co-contraction with TVA

It’s an extensor because it’s located on the posterior chain

Nerve Supply

Because erector spinae and multifidus run all the way up the spine they get nervy supply from pretty much every area their next to.

Measuring Core Stability

Pressure Biofeedback Unit (blood pressure cuff) / Real-time US / Single leg stance (trendelenburgsign) / Single leg squat

Posterior Sling

This chain that allows us to transfer power from the lower to upper limb and vice versa.

Topic 4. Bones Of The Appendicular Skeleton (Upper Limbs)

Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle

Connects the upper limb to the axial skeleton.

Includes: Clavicle & Scapula

Role: Position the shoulder join, Help move the upper limb  & Provide a base for muscle attachment

Where the sternum meets the clavicle is the only bony attachment site – which is why a fractured clavicle is common when people land on their outstretched arm, because that’s where the force transmutes to.


Articulation points: Where a bone meets another bone.

Acromial end (connects to the scapula is more thin and flat)

Sternal end (the knobby thicker end)

Identify which end is the acromial end and which is the sternal end.


Articulation points

Acromion: where the acromial end of the clavicle meets the acromion

Glenoid fossa: the ball and socket joint of the humerus

Multiple muscle attachment sites


Articulation points:

Head, Capitulum, Trochlea

Important muscle attachment sites:

Greater & lesser tubercles, Deltoid tuberosity

Lateral Epicondyle (Capitulum) articulates with the radius

Medial Epicondyle (Trochlea) articulates with the ulna

Why do we feel that sensation when we hit our “funny bone”: the ulna nerves wraps around the medial epicondyle, the ulna nerve is quite superficial which is why its so easy to knock the nerve.


When looking from anatomical position the ulna is medial (pinky side). When in a pronated position the ulna is lateral.

Articulation points


Coronoid process

Trochlear notch: where the trochlera sits

Radial notch: where the radius sits


When looking from anatomical position the radius is lateral (thumb side). When in a pronated position the radius is medial.

Articulation points


Ulna notch

Articulation for scaphoid & lunate

Important muscle attachment site:

Radial tuberosity: where the bicep brachii inserts

Carpals (Wrist)

Proximal row: Scaphoid – Lunate -Triquetrum – Pisiform (SLTP)

Distal row: Trapezium (is at the base of the thumb) – Trapezoid – Capitate – Hamate (TTCH)

Sally (Scaphoid) Left (Lunate) The (Triquetrum) Party (Pisiform) To (Trapezium) Take (Trapezoid) Charlie (Capitate) Home (Hamate)

Some lovers try positions that they can’t handle

Metacarpals (Hand) / Phalanges (Fingers)

Each finger has 3 phalanges except the thumb which has 2