HSE102 – Functional Human Anatomy
Topic 1. Introduction to Functional Human Anatomy
Basic Functional Anatomy
Planes of Reference
Midsaggital (saggital) Plane:
Separating the body into left and right.
Think about how we move in yoga during sun salutations – very sagital plane dominent.
Where abduction and adduction occur.
Think ‘grabbing a corona’ to the left and right
Separates top and bottom
E.G. The dorsal part of the hand is the back (darker side) because we must always consider that we’re referring to the body in the classic ‘anatomical’ position.
Ipsilateral: Same side of the body
E.G. The right arm is ipsilateral to the right leg, whereas the left arm is contralateral to the right leg.
Contralateral: Opposite side of the body
Practical implication: This becomes important when we discuss rotation of the trunk/neck, e.g. our external obliques does contralateral rotation which mean’s the right external oblique is gonna rotate the body to the left.
Internal & External
Relative distance of a structure from the center of an organ.
Proximal & Distal Clarification
Proximal and distal mean’s ‘relative to something that’s attached’.
E.G. The knee is proximal to the foot because the knee is closer to the original attachment point (the hip) than what the foot is.
E.G.2 The foot is distal to the knee because it’s further away from the attachment point.
Terms Related to Movement
Ventral (anterior) Body Cavities
Dorsal (posterior) Body Cavities
Organisation of Skeletal Muscle Fibers
Parallel Muscles: The fibers are running in the same direction (bicep)
Convergent Muscles: A wide base that converges on a tendon like a fan (pec major)
Pennate Muscles (contain more muscle fibers): Come in on an angle to a tendon.
Unipenate: coming in from ONE direction
Bipennate: Fibers coming in from TWO directions
Multipennate: Fibers coming in from multiple directions
Origins & Insertions
Origin: Is located at the fixed end of a muscle / It’s proximal and less moveable
Insertion: The movable end / It’s distal (further away from the attachment point) and most moveable
General Rule: The insertion moves towards the origin.
Isometric: Muscle contracts/under tension while the limb’s don’t move/the join angle doesn’t change
Concentric: Muscle’s shorten under tension as the join angle usually get’s smaller
Eccentric: Muscle lengthens under tension (gravity or external load) as the joint angle usually get’s larger
Names of Skeletal Muscle
Rectus = ‘straight’ e.g. rectus abdominis and rectus femoris muscle fibers run straight
Transverse = ‘running across the body’ e.g. transverse abdominis
Oblique = ‘running on an angle’ e.g. external oblique
Temporalis = ‘come’s off the temporal bone’ (side of the head)
Spinalis = ‘come’s off the spine’
Adominus = ‘belly region’
Superficialis & externus = superficial)
Profundus & internus = deep
Structure: Number of heads of origin, e.g. ‘bicep femoris’ has 2 heads which we can tell by the ‘bi’ portion, e.g. ‘tricep femoris’ has 3 heads which we can tell by the ‘tri’.
The name of the muscle can often reveal it’s join action. E.G. Flexor Digitorum will flex the fingers.
Teres (long & round)
Topic 2. Bones Of The Axial Skeleton
Functions of the Skeletal System
Support (framework of the body)
Blood Cell Formation (RBC)
Classifications of Bones
Long Bones: Humerus, femur, radius and ulna
Short Bones: Carpals/tarsal
Flat Bones: Cranium, sternum
Irregular Bones: Vertebrae
Sesamoid (formed within a tendon): Patella
Where a bone meet’s another bone.
Condyle: large round knob
Facet: flat articular surface
Head: prominent round head of a bone
Openings in a bone:
Foramen (a hole or opening in a bone)
Fossa: flat shallow surface (a depression in a bone where muscle often sits in)
Bony projections where muscles or ligaments attaches.
Epicondyle: projection adjacent to a condyle
Ramus: flat angular section of a bone
Trochanter: massive bony process found on the femur
Tubercle: small round bony process
Tuberosity: large, roughened process
The Axial Skeleton
Transmites the weight of our upper body into our pelvis and lower limbs.
Forms the vertical axis of the body
Consists of 80 bones
Adjusts the positions of the head, neck & trunk
Performs respiratory motions
Stabilizers & positions the appendicular skeleton
Parietal x 2 (left and right) –Temporal x 2 –Frontal x1 (means there’s only one) –Occipital x 1 –Sphenoid x 1 –Ethmoid x 1
Lateral wall and roof of skull
Articulates (joins) with frontal, occipital, temporal & sphenoid bones
Should be able to identify important landmarks like the temporal line which is where the temporalis origin is which helps the jaw open and close.
Inferior lateral aspect of skull
Articulates with mandible, zygomatic, sphenoid, parietal & occipital bones
Zygomatic process (which is a projection towards the zygomatic bone)
Mandibular fossa (where the head of the mandible sits)
External auditory meatus (allows sound to travel through)
Styloid process (important muscles that support the larynx and the tongue insert off that)
Mastoid process (where the sternocleidomastoid connects)
Forehead and roof of orbits (eye sockets)
Articulates with parietal, sphenoid, ethmoid, nasal, lacrimal, zygomatic, and maxillary bones
Posterior aspect & base of skull
Articulates with parietal, temporal, sphenoid and atlas bones
External occipital protuberance
Foramen (hole/opening) magnum (large) where the spinal cord passes through
Occipital condyles (articulating surface) which meet’s with C1
Keystone of skull
Forms part of base of skull
It unites the cranial bone to the facial bones and articulates with nearly every other bone in your skull
It’s also really important because it has an optic canal where the optic nerve runs through that transmits info from eye to the brain
Most deeply situated bone of skull
Forms bony area between nasal cavity and orbits
Articulates with sphenoid and frontal bones
“The olfactory nerve has a close anatomical relationship with the ethmoid bone. Its numerous nerve fibres pass through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone to innervate the nasal cavity with the sense of smell.”
Don’t need to know any landmarks just need to know if their paired or singular.
Nasal x 2 –Maxillae x 2 –Zygomatic (cheek bone) x 2 –Lacrimal x 2 –Palatine x 2 (back of the roof of the mouth) Vomer x 1 –Mandible x 1
Suspended from the temporal bones by ligaments & muscles and doesn’t articulate with any other bone.
Supports the tongue
Attachment site for infrahyoid & suprahyoid musculature
The Vertebral Column
C7 / T12 / L5 / S5 (5 fused vertebrae) / C4 (1-4 fused depending on the person)
Primary & Secondary
Increase strength, help maintain balance in an upright position, absorb shock, protect vertebrae from fracture
Babies develop their spine shape and concave curves as they start crawling and gain the ability to support their head
Characteristics of a Typical Vertebrae
The spinous process is the projection ‘bumpy part’ you feel running your hand down a spine. Many ligaments and muscles attach from the spinous processes.
Where the superior articular facet connects with the inferior articular process is where movement of the spine orginates.
The spinal nerves pass through the interveterbral foramen. Nerve impingement from sciatica pain usually occur within the interveterbral foramen.
A disc actually doesn’t “slip”, instead you get a protrusion of a disc into where the spinal nerves are sitting which can “pinch” the nerve.
There are 2 vertebrae that are a-typical: C1 (atlas) & C2 (axis)
C1 doesn’t have a body or a spinous process.
C2 has a feature called a ‘dens’ which gives a pivot point for C1 to rotate around which is why it’s called axis – this is what helps the head rotate.
How would you distinguish the difference between a cervical, lumbar and thoracic vertebrae?
Cervical vertabrae have holes (foremens) in their transverse process which you don’t find in other areas.
Lumbar are easier to distinguish because they are the largest, typically their spinous process is projecting posterialy straight out the back of the vertabrae.
Whereas the thoracic vertebrae have spinous processes that project downwards.
The sacrum meets the pelvis at the sacroiliac joint where the majority of the weight is transferred from the upper body to lower body.
The ribs and sternum. Role is to protect vital organs.
24 ribs in total: True ribs (first 7) which all have there own cartilage that connects to the sternum
False ribs (8-10) all join 7’s costal cartilage – that’ why their called false ribs, because they don’t have their own seperate costal cartlige.
Floating ribs (11-12) they are still classified as false ribs, but they don’t have any bony attachments anteriorly.
Topic 3. Muscles Moving the Axial Skeleton (Neck & Trunk)
Prac exam: You will be asked to identify things like lateral flexsion of the neck and trunk. Make sure you don’t just state what movement it is but what direction – whether it’s moving to the left or right.
Muscle of the Neck
Originates from the manubrium/medial clavicle inserting to the mastoid process.
Flexion of cervical spine
Contralateral (opposite side of the body) rotation. If I’m rotating to the left the right SCM is on.
Ipsilateral (same side) lateral flexion. So as you bring your neck down to your ear on the right side it’s the right SCM that activates.
Splenius Muscles (cervicis, capitis)
Cervicis – originates from spinous process of T3-T6 inserting at transverse process of C1-C3
Capitis – originates from spinous process C7, T1-T4 inserting at mastoid process and occipital bone
Don’t need to know specific origin and insertion but know where the muscles are.
Ipsilateral rotation & lateral flexion
Anterolateral Abdominal Wall
Muscle of the Trunk
Structure: Bilaterally paired muscles in the anterolateral abdominal wall
3 flat muscles
Transverse abdominis (TVA)
1 vertical muscles
Most superficial of the three lateral muscles
Originates from the ribs and inserts at the pelvis & abdominal aponeurosisto the lineaalba (connective tissue that is often torn during child birth)
Compresses (flexsion) of the abdomen.
Exception to the rule where the origin actually moves towards the insertion instead of the usual other way around.
Laterally flexes the vertebral column
Contralateral rotator of the trunk
Middle layer of the three lateral abdominal muscles
Posterior fibres pass from the anterior trunk to the lumbar spine
Compresses the abdomen & stabilises the spine
Ipsilateral rotator of the trunk
Deepest of the three lateral abdominal muscles
Passes from the anterior trunk to the lumbar spine
Compresses the abdomen & stabilises the spine
TVA becomes active prior to limb movement
Co-contract with Multifidis
Originates from the pelvis and inserts to the ribs & sternum
RA & lateral fibers of the EO prime movers of trunk flexion (predominantly sagittal plane movements)
Better set up for rapid ballistic movements
Posterior Trunk Muscles
Posterior abdominal wall
Forms an important part of the corset
Originates from the iliac crest of the pelvis and inserts to the 12th rib & lumbar (L1-L4) vertebrae
Actions include ipsilateral lateral flexion and extension of the lumbar spine
Erector Spinae muscles
3 muscles together: iliocostalis, longissimus & spinalis muscles
Originate from iliac crest & sacrum to insertion points up to C2
Main action is trunk and neck extension because the fibers run vertical
Covers a small number of spinal segments
Helps to stiffen and stabilise the spine prior to limb movement
Co-contraction with TVA
It’s an extensor because it’s located on the posterior chain
Because erector spinae and multifidus run all the way up the spine they get nervy supply from pretty much every area their next to.
Measuring Core Stability
Pressure Biofeedback Unit (blood pressure cuff) / Real-time US / Single leg stance (trendelenburgsign) / Single leg squat
This chain that allows us to transfer power from the lower to upper limb and vice versa.
Topic 4. Bones Of The Appendicular Skeleton (Upper Limbs)
Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle
Connects the upper limb to the axial skeleton.
Includes: Clavicle & Scapula
Role: Position the shoulder join, Help move the upper limb & Provide a base for muscle attachment
Where the sternum meets the clavicle is the only bony attachment site – which is why a fractured clavicle is common when people land on their outstretched arm, because that’s where the force transmutes to.
Articulation points: Where a bone meets another bone.
Acromial end (connects to the scapula is more thin and flat)
Sternal end (the knobby thicker end)
Identify which end is the acromial end and which is the sternal end.
Acromion: where the acromial end of the clavicle meets the acromion
Glenoid fossa: the ball and socket joint of the humerus
Multiple muscle attachment sites
Head, Capitulum, Trochlea
Important muscle attachment sites:
Greater & lesser tubercles, Deltoid tuberosity
Lateral Epicondyle (Capitulum) articulates with the radius
Medial Epicondyle (Trochlea) articulates with the ulna
Why do we feel that sensation when we hit our “funny bone”: the ulna nerves wraps around the medial epicondyle, the ulna nerve is quite superficial which is why its so easy to knock the nerve.
When looking from anatomical position the ulna is medial (pinky side). When in a pronated position the ulna is lateral.
Trochlear notch: where the trochlera sits
Radial notch: where the radius sits
When looking from anatomical position the radius is lateral (thumb side). When in a pronated position the radius is medial.
Articulation for scaphoid & lunate
Important muscle attachment site:
Radial tuberosity: where the bicep brachii inserts
Proximal row: Scaphoid – Lunate -Triquetrum – Pisiform (SLTP)
Distal row: Trapezium (is at the base of the thumb) – Trapezoid – Capitate – Hamate (TTCH)
Sally (Scaphoid) Left (Lunate) The (Triquetrum) Party (Pisiform) To (Trapezium) Take (Trapezoid) Charlie (Capitate) Home (Hamate)
Some lovers try positions that they can’t handle
Metacarpals (Hand) / Phalanges (Fingers)
Each finger has 3 phalanges except the thumb which has 2